25 February 2016

Important Industry of India in brief

Important industries of India
1.Iron and steel industry
◦First steel industry at Kulti, Near Jharia, West Bengal - Bengal iron works company in 1870
◦First large scale steal plant TISCO at Jamshedpur in 1907 followed by IISCO at Burnpur in 1919. Both belonged to private sector
◦The first public sector unit was "Vishveshvaraya Iron and Stell works" at Bhadrawati
2.Public sector steel plants
◦Russian government -
Location : : Assistance
Rourkela(Orrisa) : : Germany
Bhilai(MP) : : Russian government
Durgapur(WB) : : British government
Burnpur(WB) : : Acquired from private sector in 1976
Vishakhapattnam(AP) : : Russian government
Salem(Tamil Nadu) -
Vijai Nagar : : (Karnataka) 
Bhadrawati(Karnataka) : : Nationalisation of Vishveshvarayya Iron and Steel Ltd(owned by Central and State government)
◦All these are managed by SAIL(at present all important steel plants except TISCO, are under public sector)
◦Steel authority of India Ltd(SAIL) was established in 1974 and was made responsible for the development of the steel industry

◦Presently India is the eighth largest steel producing country in the world.
3.Jute industry
◦Jute industry is an important industry for a country like India, because not only it earns foreign exchange but also provides substantial employment opportunities in agriculture and industrial sectors
◦Its first modernised industrial unit was established at Reshra in West Bengal in 1855
◦The jute industry in the country is traditionally export oriented. India ranks number one in the raw jute and juite goods production and number two in export of jute goods in the world.
4.Cotton and textile industry
◦Oldest industry of India, and employees largest number of workers
◦It is the largest organised and broad-based industry which accounts for 4% of GDP, 20% of manufacturing value-added and one third of total export earnings.
◦The first Indian modernised cotton cloth mill was established in 1818 at Fort Gloaster near Calcutta but this mill was not successful. The second mill named "Mumbai's spinning and weaving Co." Was established in 1854 at Bombay by KGN Daber.
5.Sugar industry
◦Sugar industry is the second largest industry after cotton textile industry among agriculture-based industries in India.
◦India is now the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Maharashtra contributes over one third of the total sugar output, followed closely by Uttar Pradesh.
6.Fertiliser industry
◦India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers in the world
7.Paper industry
◦The first mechanised paper mill was set up in 1812 at Serampur in West Bengal.
◦The paper industry in India is ranked among the 15 top global paper industries.
8.Silk industry
◦India is the second-largest(first being China) country in the world in producing natural silk. At present, India produces about 16% silk of the world.
◦India and joys that distinction of being the only country producing all the five known commercial varieties of silk viz Mulberry, Tropical Tussar, Oak Tussar, Eri and Muga.
9.Petroleum and natural gas
◦First successful Oilwell was dug in India in 1889 at Digboi, Assam.
◦At present a number of regions having oil reserves have been identified and oil is being extracted in these regions
◦For exploration purpose , Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) was established in 1956 at Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Indian Five Year Plans at a Glance

Five Year Plans

First plan(1951 to 56)

•It was based on Harrod-Damor model
•Community development programme was launched in 1952
•Emphasised technical, price stability, power and transport
•It was more than a success, because of good are blessed in the last two years

Second plan(1956 to 61)

•Also called Mahalanobis plan after its chief architect.
•Its objective was rapid industrialisation
•Advocated use imports which led to emptying of funds leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic emphasis from agriculture to industry far too soon. During this plan, price level increased by 30% against a decline of 13% during the first plan

Third plan(1961 to 66)

•At its conception time, it was felt that Indian economy has entered it takeoff stage. Therefore, a was to make India a self reliant and self generating economy.
•Also, it was realised from the experience of first two planes that agriculture could be given the top priority to suffice the requirements of export and industry.
•Complete failure due to unforeseen misfortunes viz. Chinese aggression(1962), Indo Pak war (1962) , Indo Pak war (1965 ), Seve rest drought to 100 years (1965 to 66)

Three annual plans(1966 to 69) •Plan holiday for three years. The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emphasis on agriculture during the annual plans.
•During these plans a whole new agriculture strategy involving widespread of distribution of highly-yielding varieties of seeds, the extensive use of fertilisers, exploitation of irrigation potential and soil conservation was put into action to tide over the crisis in agriculture production.
•During the annual plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the third plan, making way for a planned growth

Fourth plan(1969 to 74)

•Main emphasis on agriculture's growth rate so that chain reaction can start
•Fared well in the first two years with record production, last three years failure cause of poor monsoon.
•Had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo Pak war

Fifth plan (1974 to 79 )

•The fifth plan repaired and launched by D.D Dhar proposed to achieve two main objectives viz removal of poverty(Garibi Hatao) and attainment of self reliance, through promotion of high rate, better distribution of income and a very significant growth in the domestic rate of saving.
•The plan was terminated in 1978 (instead of 1979 ) when Janta government came to the power.

Rolling plan(1978 to 80) •there were two sixth plans. One by Genta government.(For 78 to 73) which was in operation for two years only and the other by Congress government when it returned to power in 1980
•The Janata government plan is also called Rolling plan

Sixth plan(1980 to 85)

•Objectives: Increase in national income, modernisation of technology, ensuring continuous decrease in poverty and unemployment, population control through family planning etc.

Seventh plan(1985 to 90)

•The seventh plan emphasized policies and programmes which aimed at rapid growth in food grains production, increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning.
•It was a great success, the economy recorded 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%

Eighth plan(1992 to 97)

•The eighth plan was postponed by two years because of political upheavals at the Centre and it was launched after a worsening balance of payment position and inflation during 1990-91
•The plan undertook various drastic policy measures to combat the bad economic situation and to undertake an annual average growth of 5.6%
•some of the main economic performance during eighth plan period were rapid economic growth, high growth in exports and imports, improvement in trade and current account deficit.

Ninth plan(1997 to 2002)

•It was developed in the context of four important dimensions: quality of life, generation of productive employment, a regional balance and self-reliance.

Tenth plan (2002 to 2007)

•Its objectives included achieving the growth rate of 8%, reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and 210% by 2012, universal access to primary education by 2007, increase in literacy rate to 72% within the plan period and to 80% by 2012

Eleventh plan(2007 to 2012)

•Accelerate growth rate of GDP from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th plan in order to double per capita income by 2016-17
•Increase agricultural GDP growth rate of 4% per year to ensure a broader spread of benefits.
•Reduce drop out rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003-04 to 20% by 2011-12
•Increase the literacy rate for persons of faith seven years or more to 85%
•reduce infant mortality rate(MR) 28 and maternal mortality ratio(MMR) to 1 part 1000 live births.
•raise the sex ratio for age group 0-6 to 935 by 2011-12 and to 950 by 2016-17
•Ensure electricity connection to all village and BPL households by 2009 and the round-the-clock power by the end of the plan
•increase forest and free cover by the five percentage points

Twelvth plan(2012 to 2017)

•The government intends to reduce poverty by 10 per cent during the 12th Five-Year Plan.


Plan : : Target : : Actual
First Plan(1951-56) : : 2.9% : : 3.6%
Second Plan(1956-61) : : 4.5% : : 4.3%
Third Plan(1961-66) : : 5.6% : : 2.8%
Fourth Plan(1969-74) : : 5.7% : : 3.3%
Fifth Plan(1974-79) : : 4.4% : : 4.8%
Sixth Plan(1980-85) : : 5.2% : : 6.0%
Seventh Plan(1985-90) : : 5.0% : : 6.0%
Eighth Plan(1992-97) : : 5.6% : : 6.8%
Ninth Plan(1997-2002) : : 6.5% : : 5.4%
Tenth Plan(2002-2007) : : 8.0% 
Eleventh Plan(2007-2012) : : 9.0%
Website of Planning Commission of india

Indian Economics Facts at a Glance

Economy of India
Indian Economy is Twelfth largest in the world and fourth largest by purchasing power parity. In the 21st century, India is an emerging economic power having vast human and natural resources.
Economic Growth: Economic growth has been defined as "an increase in real terms of the output of goods and services that is sustained over a long period of time, measured in terms of value added". Economic growth is a dynamic concept and refers to continuous increase in output.
Factors in Economic Growth: The four factors contributing to growth are
1.human resources (labour supply, education, discipline, motivation)
2.national resources (land, minerals, fuels, environmental quality)
3.capital formation (machines, factories, roads)
4.technology (science, engineering, management, entrepreneurship)

Growth and Development
While the term economic growth referees to increases over time in a country's real output of goods and services i.e. product per capita, the term economic development, in contrast, is more comprehensive. It implies progressive changes in the socio-economic structure. Economic growth and development frequently used interchangeably in economic literatures actually are not identical technically.
Difference Between Economic Growth and Economic Development
Economic Growth Economic Development
1.It indicates quantitative improvement in the economic progress of a country
2.It shows growth in natural income and per capita income over time
3.A country may grow but it may not develop
 1.It indicates qualitative improvement in the economic progress of a country
2.It shows not only a sustained increase in national and per capita income but also qualitative changes which leads to higher standard of living.
3.Economic development includes the notion of economic growth.

Economic Growth = Size of output (A Quantitative aspect)
 Economic Development = Size of output + Welfare (A Qualitative aspect)

Gross National Happiness (GNH) : The concept of gross national happiness has been introduced by king of Bhutan, Jigme Singya Wang Chuck, a tiny kingdom on the northern borders of India. The GNH aims to ensure that prosperity is shared across protecting the environment and maintaining a responsive the word happiness, more like what the signers of the Declaration of Independence had in mind when they included the "pursuit of happiness" as an inalienable right equal to liberty and life itself. The index is designed to challenge the well-established indices of countries development. HDI and GDP which are seen as not taking sustainability into account.

GNH Ranking
Ranking Country : : HPI
1 Vanuatu : : 68.21
2 Colombia : : 67.24
3 Costa Rica : : 66.00
4 Dominica : : 64.55
5 Panama : : 63.54
6 Cuba : : 61.86
7 Honduras : : 61.75
8 Guatemala : : 61.69
9 El Salvador : : 61.66
10 St. Vincent of the Grenading : : 61.37
90 India : : 42.46
 India is the 90th happiest country in the world, behind Bhutan(13), China(31), Sri Lanka(13) and Bangladesh(41). It is ahead of Pakistan(112) and Russia(172).
 Seven of the top 10 happiest countries are from western democracies, while countries in Asia, known for their strong cultural values, family ties and collective identities surprisingly scored low-China(31), Japan(95) and Thailand(32)

Millennium Development Goals to be Achieved by 2015
◾Achieve universal primary education
◾Reduce child mortality
◾Improve maternal health
◾Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
◾Ensure environmental sustainability
◾Develop a global patnership for development
◾Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education by 2015
◾Halve the proportion of the people suffering from Hunger

Five Years Plans

◾Poverty and Employement/Green Revolutions

Important Industries of India

Indian Economic Revolution
Poverty and unemployment
•Poverty line is defined on the basis of nutritional standards. The list calorie intake is fixed at 2400 Cal/person/day for rural area and 2100 Cal/person/day for urban area. The people below these nutritional is an income standards are considered to be below the poverty line(BPL).
•Presently 24.4% population in India is below poverty line. It is 24.36% in ruler India and 24.50% in urban areas. National Sample survey Organisation(NSSO) conducts this survey.
•Unemployment simply means a situation when able and willing people are not getting jobs as per their own capabilities Green Revolution
•Indian Green Revolution is associated with the use of HYVS(highly yielding variety seeds), chemical fertilisers and new technology which led to a sharp rise in agriculture production during the middle of 1960. •The term "Green Revolution" was given by American scientists, Dr William Gande.
•During the middle of 60s, Indian agriculture scientist developed a number of new highly yielding varieties of wheat by processing wheat seeds imported from Mexico. A similar improvement in variety of rice was also observed.
 •The credit of this goes not only to Nobel Laureate Dr. Norman Borlaug, but also to Dr MS Swaminathan Revolution Area Yellow revolution oil seeds White revolution milk Blue Revolution Fish Pink revolution Shrimp/Meat Brown Revolution nonconventional energy resources Grey revolution wool Golden Revolution horticulture
Revolution : : Area
Yellow revolution : : Oil Seeds
White revolution : : Milk
Blue Revolution : : Fish
Pink revolution : : Shrimp/Meat
Brown Revolution : : Nonconventional Energy Resources
Grey revolution : : Wool
Golden Revolution : : Horticulture

22 February 2016

Dances In India at a Glance

Dances in India
Dance in India has an unbroken tradition of over 2,000 years. Its themes are derived from mythology, legends and classical literature, two main divisions being classical and folk. Classical dance forms are based on ancient dance discipline and have rigid rules of presentation. Important among them are Bharat Natyam, Khathakali, Kathak, Manipur, Kuchipudi and Odissi.

Bharata Natyam
This dance derives its roots from Tamil Nadu and has developed into all over in India.

It’s a dance from Kerala

It is a classical dance from revitalised as a result of the fusion of Mughal influence with Indian culture

This dance has contributed to delicate, lyrical style of dance called Manipuri.

It is a dance having origin from Andhra Pradesh

This dance is from Orrisa, once practised as a temple dance, is today widely exhibited by artistes across the country

Folk and tribal dances are of numerous patterns: Both classical and folk dances owe their present popularity to institutions like Sangeet Natak Akademi and other training institutes and cultural organisations. The Akademi gives financial assistance to cultural institutions and awards fellowships to scholars, performs and teachers to promote advanced study and training in different forms of dance and music especially those which are rare

Various Tribal Dances In India
Following are the various tribal dances in India from different states

Dance : : State
Ankia Nat : : Assam
Bahaka wata : : Orrisa
Bhangra : : Punjab
Bhavai : : Gujarat, Rajasthan
Bihu : : Assam
Chakiarkoothu : : Kerala
Chakri : : Jammu & Kashmir
Chamar Ginad : : Rajasthan
Chappeli : : Uttar Pradesh
Chhau : : West Bengal
Chavittu natkam : : Kerala
Chiraw (Bamboo dance) : : Mizoram
Dahikala : : Maharashtra
Dandanate : : Orrisa
Damdiya ras : : Gujarat
Gangore : : Rajasthan
Garba : : Gujarat
Gidda : : Punjab
Gidda parhaun : : Himachal Pradesh
Hikat : : Jammu & Kashmir
Jat- Jatin : : Bihar
Jatra : : West Bengal
Jhulan Leela : : Rajasthan
Kaikotti Kalli : : Kerala
Kummi : : Tamil Nadu
Kajri : : Uttar Pradesh
Kayanga : : Himachal Pradesh
Karan : : Uttar Pradesh
Kathi : : West Bengal
Kayanga Bajavanga : : Rajasthan
Khayal : : Rajasthan
Kokattam : : Tamil Nadu
Koodiyattam : : Kerala
Kottam : : Andhra Pradesh
Krishnanathani : : Kerala
Kumanon : : Uttar Pradesh
Lai Haroba : : Manipur
Lavani : : Maharashtra
Lezim : : Maharashtra
Lota : : Madhya Pradesh
Luddi : : Himachal Pradesh
Macha : : Madhya Pradesh
Maha Rassa : : Manipur
Mudivettu : : Kerala
Munzra : : Himachal Pradesh
Nautanki : : Uttar Pradesh
Ojapali : : Assam
Pandvani : : Madhya Pradesh
Rasila : : Gujarat
Rauf : : Jammu & Kashmir
Swang : : Haryana
Tamasha : : Maharashtra
Tappatrikali : : Kerala
Therukoothu : : Tamil Nadu
Theyyam : : Kerala
Tippani : ; Gujarat
Veethi Bhagavata : : Andhra Pradesh
Last Updated: 06 March 2016

21 February 2016

Monthwise Events and Festivals List of India

Indian Fairs and Festivals
Festivals in India are determined by Solar and Lunar positions and they may fall in the different month as specified below:-


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•International Yoga Week : : Jan 04 to Jan 08 : : India
•Islands Tourism Festivals : : Jan 05 to Jan 14 Each Year : : Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar
•National Kite Festival :  : Jan 14 Every Year : : Gujarat
•Maker Sankranti : : Jan 15
•Lohri :  : Jan 16
•Pongal :  : Jan 16
Guru Govind Singh Jayanti :  : Jan 16
•Thai Pusam :  :  Jan 24, Tamilnadu
•Flot Festivals :  :
•Kerela Village Fair :  : Jan 15 to Jan 24 Every Year : : Kerala
•Bikaner Festival/Bikaner Camel Festival :  :  Jan 22-Jan 24 Every Year : : Rajasthan
•Republic Day India :  : Jan 26
•Pattadakal Dance Festival :  :  Mid Jan to Mid Feb : : Karnataka

•Ellora Festival : :  : : Aurangabad, Maharashtra


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place

•Surajkund Crafts Mela : : Feb 1 to Feb 15 Each Year : : Surajkund, Faridabad, Haryana
•Shekhawati Festival : : Feb 04 to Feb 07 : : Nawalgarh, Jhunjhun, Rajasthan
•Vasant Panchami :  : Feb 10 : : India
•Taj Mahotsav : : Feb 18 to Feb 27 Each Year : : Agra, Uttar Pradesh
•Goa Carniva/India Bike Week : : Feb 19 to Feb 20 : : Goa
•Shivaji Jayanti : : Feb 19
•Khajuraho Dance Festival : : Feb 20 to Feb 26 Each Year : : Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh  
Guru Ravidas Jayanti : : Feb 22
•Desert Festival : : Dec 23 to Feb 29 : : Gujarat
•Nagaur Fair/World Sacred Spirit Festival : : Feb 22 to Feb 24 and Feb 26 to Feb 28
•Deccan Festival : : Feb 25 Each Year : : Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•Chapchar Kut : : Mar 01 : : Mizoram
•Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati Jayanti : : March 04
•Mahashivratri : : Mar 07
•Hoysla Mahotsava : : 2nd Week March : : Belur, Karnataka
•Jamshed-e-Navroz : : Mar 21 : : Muslim League
•Elephant Festival : : March 22 : : Jaipur, Rajasthan

•Holi : : Mar 23 : : India
•Dolyatra : : Mar 24 : : Odisha

•Good Friday : : Mar 25 
•Easter : : Mar 27 


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place

•Chaitra Sukhladi : : Apr 08
•Gudi Padva or Ugadi, Telugu New Year : : Apr 08 : : Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra
•Urs Festival : : Apr 09 : : Ajmer, Rajasthan
•Mewar : : April 9  to April 10 : : Mewar, Rajasthan
•Baisakhi : : Apr 13 : : India
•Maha Vishuv Sankranti, Odia New Year : : Apr 13 : : Odisha
•Ambedkar Jayanti : : Apr 14
•Mesadi/Vaisakhadi : : Apr 14
•Ramnavami : : Apr 15 : : India
•Pooram : : 17 Apr : : Kerala
•Mahavir Jayanti : : Apr 20 : : India
•Hazarat Ali's Birthday : : Apr 21
•Hingula Yatra : : Apr 22 : : Odisha


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
 •Labour Day : : May 01 : : India
 •Sabe-Meraz : : May 05 : : India. Islam
•Birthday of Ravindranath : : May 08
•Akshaya Trutiya : : May 9 : : Odisha 
•Buddha Purnima : : May 21 : : India
  •Sabe-Barat : : May 23 : : India. Islam


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•Ganga Dussehra : : June 14, 2016. : : Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, and other holy cities along the Ganges such as Haridwar and Rishikesh.
•Savitree Vrat : : June 04 : : Odisha
•Hemis Festival : :
•Ramjan : : From June 07 to July 06 : : all India and Muslim Countries
•The Raja : : June 14 to June 16 : : Odisha
•Jyestha Purnima : : June 20 : : Odisha
•Kundalini Shakti Festival : : June 9-12, 2016. : : Kasol, Himachal Pradesh.
•Kottiyoor Utsavam : : May 2o to June 16 : : Kannur district, Kerala.
•Shimla Summer Festival : : June 11-13, 2016. : : Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.
•Champakulam Boat Race : : June 20, 2016. : : Pampa River at Champakulam, not far from Alleppey in Kerala.
•The Yoga Shala Expo : : June 21-23, 2016. : : Pragati Maidan, Delhi.
•Ambubachi Mela : : June to be confirmed. : : Kamakhya temple, Guwahati, Assam.
•Sindhu Darshan Festival : : June 23-26, 2016. : : On the banks of the river Sindhu, Leh, Ladakh.
•Sao Joao Feast of St John the Baptist : : June 24, annually. : : North Goa, particularly Siolim.
•Feast of Saints Peter and Paul : : June 29, annually. : : Goa, particularly the riverside villages of Candolim, Siolim, Ribandar and Agassaim.
•Lucknow Mango Festival and Farmers Market : : June to be announced : : Habibullah Estate Orchard, Saidanpur village, Barabanki. Farmer's Market at UPSTDC Paryatan Bhawan, Gompti Nagar, Lucknow.


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•Amarnath Yatra : : July 2 to August 18 : : On Mount Amarnath, Kashmir, India
•Dree Festival  : : July 04 to July 07 each year : :  Ziro, Arunachal Pradesh, India
•Puri Ratha Yatra : : July 06 to July 14 : : Puri Lord Jagannath Temple, Odisha
•Ramadan :  : June 06 July 06 : : Muslim Festival, World
•Id-ul-Fitr :  : July 06 : : Muslim Festival
•Royal Enfield Himalayan Odyssey : : July 9 to July 23 : : From Delhi to Leh and then back via Spiti.
•Sudasa Brat : : July 14 : : Odisha, India
•Guru Purnima : : July 19 : : India
•Njangattiri Aanayoottu (Elephant Feeding Ritual) : : July 22 : :  Kerala, India


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•Janmashtami : : August 24
•Nag Panchami : : August 06
•Rakshabandhan : : August 18
•The Monsoon Festival : : August 4-14, 2016  : :  Delhi
•Teej Festival : : August 5-6 and 19-20, 2016 : :  Rajasthan, particularly in Jaipur and Bundi
•Nag Panchami : : August 7, 2016 : :  Mostly in rural areas, particularly Battis Shirala village, Maharashtra. Other popular places include Adiesha Temple in Andhra Pradesh, Nagaraja Temple in Kerala, Nagathamman Temple in Chennai, and Hardevja Temple in Jaipur.
•Nehru Trophy Snake Boat Race : : August 13, 2016 : :  Punnamda Lake, Alleppey in Kerala
•Independence Day : : August 15, annually : :  India
•Jhapan Mela : : August 17, 2016 : :  The western region of West Bengal, at Bishnupur/Vishnupur (same place, just sometimes spelled differently due to translation) in the Bankura district.
•Gogamedi Fair : : August 26-28, 2016 : :  Ganganagar, on the northern Rajasthan border
•Teachers Day : : September 05, 2016 : :  India
•Teachers Day : : September 05, 2016 : :  India


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•Teachers Day : : September 05, 2016 : :  India
•Nua Khai 2016 : : September 06, 2016 : : Sambalpur and other southern part of Odisha
•Lonavala International Film Festival : : September 1-5, 2016 : :  Triose Plaza, Lonavala, halfway between Mumbai and Pune in Maharashtra
•Pune International Literary Festival  : : September 2-4, 2016 : :  Pune, about 3 hours from Mumbai in Maharashtra
•The Park's New Festival  : : Throughout September, starting September 2 in Chennai and ending September 22 in Delhi  : :  Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi
•Athachamayam Thrippunithura : : September 4, 2016 : :  Tripunithura, near Ernakulam in Kochi
•Ganesh Chaturthi : : September 5-15, 2016 : :  Mostly in the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. One of the best places to experience the festival is in the city of Mumbai
•Id-ul-Zuha : : September 12, 2016 : :  Muslim Festival 
•Onam  : : September 14, 2016 (celebrations start 10 days prior and continue for around a week after)  : :  Kerala. The most spectacular celebrations take place in Trivandrum, Thrissur, and Kottayam
•Ramnagar Ramlila : : September 15-October 16, 2016 : :  Ramnagar, on the banks of the Ganges River opposite Varanasi
•Vishwakarma Puja : : September 16, 2016 : :  All over India
•Naropa 2016 : : September 16-22, 2016 : :  Hemis Monastery, near Leh in Ladakh
•Payippad Snake Boat Race : : September 16, 2016 : :  Along the Payippad River at Harippad in Kerala's Alleppey district
•Onam Pulikkali Tiger Play : : September 17, 2016 : :  Swaraj Round in Thrissur, Kerala
•Aranmula Snake Boat Race : : September 17, 2016 : :  Along the Pampa River at Aranmula near Chengannur, south of Alleppey in Kerala
•Ladakh Festival : : September 18-25, 2016 : :  Leh and surrounding villages
•Ziro Festival : : September 22-25, 2016 : :  Ziro Valley, Arunachal Pradesh
•Neelamperoor Patayani : : September 29, 2016 : :  Palli Bhagavathi temple, Neelamperoor, Alleppey district, Kerala


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•Gandhi Jayanti and Shashtri Jayanti : : October 2, 2016 : : India
•Durga Puja : : October 7, 2016 to October 11, 2016 : : North India especially in Kolkata and Cuttack
•Navratri : : October 10, 2016 : : North India
•Dussehra : : October 11, 2016 : : North India
•Laxmipuja Festival, Sharad Purnima and Kumar Purnima : : October 15, 2016 : : North India especially in Dhenkanal and Kendrapara
•Muharram : : October 12, 2016: Muslim Festival •Diwali : : October 30, 2016 : : All India


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place

•Guru Purab
•Ka Pomblang Nongrem
•Sonepur Fair
•Pushkar Fair
•Hampi Festival


Festivals/Events : : Date : : Place
•Konark Dance Festival
Last Updated: 19 Sep 2016

20 February 2016

Constitution of India at a Glance

Constitution of India and Polity
The present constitution of India was framed by the Constitution Assembly of India setup under Cabinet Mission Plan of May 16, 1946.

Composition of Constituent Assembly

•The Constituent Assembly consisted of 385 members, of which 292 were elected by he elected members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies while 93 members were nominated by the Princely States. To these were to be added a representative each from the four Chief Commissioners Provinces of Delhi, Ajmer-Marwar, Coorg and British Baluchistan.
•Each Province and each Indian State or group of States were allotted the total number of seas proportional to their respective population roughly in the ration of one to a million.
•B N Rao was appointed the Constitutional Advisor of the Assembly.
•The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly took place of Dec 9, 1946 with Dr. Sachidanand Sinha as its interim President. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as its President n Dec 11, 1947.
•The Assembly framing the Constitution.had 13 Committees.
•The all-important Drafting Committee, which bore the responsibility of drafting the Constitutional document during the recess of the Constitutent Assembly, from July 1947 to September 1948, was formed on August 29, 1947. Its members were: 1.Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
2.N. Gopalaswami Ayyar
3.K.M. Munshi
4.Syyed Mohd. Saadulla
5.N.Madhav Rao
6.D.P.Khaitan (T Krishnamachari, after Kahitan’s Death in 1948)
•It was finally passed and accepted on Nov 26, 1949. The session of the Assembly was held on Jan 24, 1950, which unanimously elected Dr, Rajendra Prasad as the President of India. In all the 284 members of the Assembly signed the official copies of the Indian Constitution which came into effect on Jan 26, 1950, known and celebrated as the Republic Day of India.

The Indian Constitution Preamble

" WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure all its citizens."
JUSTICE, social economic and political.
LIBERTY, of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
EQUALITY, of status and of opportunity, and to promote among them all.
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.
Idea of preamble borrowed from Constitution of US.
The words ‘SOCIALIST’, ‘SECULAR’ and ‘UNITY’ & ‘INTEGRITY’ were added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976.
Preamble is not justifiable.

Borrowed features of constitution from different countries

From U.K.
•Nominal Head – President (like Queen)
•Cabinet System of Ministers
•Post of PM
•Parliamentary Type of Govt.
•Bicameral Parliament
•Lower House more powerful
•Council of Ministers responsible to Lowe House
•Speaker in Lok Sabha

From U.S.
•Written Constitution
•Executive head of state known as President and his being the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
•Vice- President as the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha
•Fundamental Rights
•Supreme Court
•Provision of States
•Independence of Judiciary and judicial review
•Removal of Supreme court and High court Judges

•Fundamental Duties
•Five year Plan

•Concurrent list
•Language of the preamble
•Provision regarding trade, commerce and intercourse

From JAPAN •Law on which the Supreme Court function

From WEIMAR CONSTITUION OF GERMANY •Suspension of Fundamental Rights during the emergency

From CANADA •Scheme of federation with a strong centre
•Distribution of powers between centre and the states and placing. Residuary Powers with the centre

From IRELAND •Concept of Directive Principles of States Policy(Ireland borrowed it from SPAIN)
•Method of election of President
•Nomination of members in the Rajya Sabha by the President

Schedules in Constitution of India

First Schedule •List of States & Union Territories

Second Schedule •Salary of President, Governors, Chief Judges, Judges of High Court and Supreme court, Comptroller and Auditor General

Third Schedule •Forms of Oaths and affirmations

Fourth Schedule •Allocate seats for each state of India in Rajya Sabha

Fifth Schedule •Administration and control of scheduled areas and tribes

Sixth Schedule •Provisions for administration of Tribal Area in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram & Arunachal Pradesh

Seventh Schedule •Gives allocation of powers and functions between Union & States. It contains 3 lists 1.Union List (For central Govt) 97 Subjects.
2.States List (Powers of State Govt) 66 subjects
3.Concurrent List (Both Union & States) 47 subjects.

Eighth Schedule •List of 22 languages of India recognized by Constitution
1. Assamese 2. Bengali 3. Gujarati
4. Hindi 5. Kannada 6. Kashmiri
7. Manipuri 8. Malayalam 9. Konkani
10. Marathi 11. Nepali 12. Oriya
13. Punjabi 14. Sanskrit 15. Sindhi
16. Tamil 17. Telugu 18. Urdu
19. Santhali 20. Bodo 21. Maithili 
22. Dogri
•Sindhi was added in 1967 by 21 Amendment
•Konkani, Manipuri ad Nepali were added in 1992 by 71 amendment Santhali, Maithili, Bodo and Dogri were added in 2003 by 92 amendment

Ninth Schedule •Added by Ist amendment in 1951. Contains acts & orders related to land tenure, land tax, railways, industries.{Right of property not a fundamental right now}

Tenth Schedule •Added by 52nd amendment in 1985. Contains provisions of disqualification of grounds of defection

Eleventh Schedule •By 73rd amendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Panchayati Raj.

Twelfth Schedule •By 74thamendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Municipal Corporation.


  1. Andhra Pradesh Created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act 1953 by carving our some areas from the State of Chennai
  2. Gujarat and Maharashtra The State of Mumbai was divided into two States i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Mumbai (Reorganisation) Act 1960
  3. Kerala Created by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. It comprised Travancor and Cochin areas
  4. Karnataka Created from the Princely State of Mysuru by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. It was renamed Karnataka in 1973
  5. Nagaland It was carved out from the State of Asom by the State of Nagaland Act, 1952
  6. Haryana It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act, 1966
  7. Himachal Pradesh The Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of State by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970
  8. Meghalaya First carved out as a sub-State within the State of Asom by 23 Constitutional Amendment Act, 1969. Later in 1971, it received the status of a full-fledged State by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
  9. Manipura and Tripura Both these States were elevated from the status of Union-Territories by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
  10. Sikkim Sikkim was first given the Status of Associate State by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act 1974. It got the status of a full State in 1975 by the 36th Amendment Act, 1975
  11. Mizoram It was elevated to the status of a full State by the State of Mizoram Act, 1986
  12. Arunachal Pradesh It received the status of a full state by the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1896
  13. Goa Goa was separated from the Union-Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu and was made a full-fledged State of Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act 1987. But Daman and Diu remained as Union Territory
  14. Chhattisgarh Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 2000
  15. Uttarakhand Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Uttar Pradesh on November 9, 2000
  16. Jharkhand Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Bihar on November 15, 2000


The Fundamental Rights in Indian constitution acts as a guarantee that all Indian citizens can and will live their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. They include individual rigts common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil right.
Originally, the right to property was also included in the Fundamental Rights, however, the Forty-Fourth Amendment, passed in 1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that "No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law."
Following are the Fudamental Rights in India
Right to Equality •Article 14 :- Equality before law and equal protection of law
•Article 15 :- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
•Article 16 :- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
•Article 17 :- End of untouchability
•Article 18 :- Abolition of titles, Military and academic distinctions are, however, exempted

Right to Freedom •Article 19 :- It guarantees the citizens of India the following six fundamentals freedoms:- 1.Freedom of Speech and Expression
2.Freedom of Assembly
3.Freedom of form Associations
4.Freedom of Movement
5.Freedom of Residence and Settlement
6.Freedom of Profession, Occupation, Trade and Bussiness
•Article 20 :- Protection in respect of conviction for offences
•Article 21 :- Protection of life and personal liberty
•Article 22 :- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right Against Exploitation •Article 23 :- Traffic in human beings prohibited
•Article 24 :- No child below the age of 14 can be employed

Right to freedom of Religion •Article 25 :- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
•Article 26 :- Freedom to manage religious affairs
•Article 27 :- Prohibits taxes on religious grounds
•Article 28 :- Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights •Article 29 :- Protection of interests of minorities
•Article 30 :- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
•Article 31 :- Omitted by the 44th Amendment Act


President of India is the head of the Union Executive. A Council of Ministers headed by Prime Minister aids and advises the President in the excersie of his function.
 President of India is also Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces.
Office of President of India ==> Rashtrapati Bhavan Rashtrapati Bhavan
•Must be a citizen of India
•Completed 35 years of age
•Eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha
•Must not hold any government post. Exceptions are: 1.President and Vice-President
2.Governor of any state
3.Minister of Union State

•Indirectly elected through ‘Electoral College’ consisting of Elected members of both the Houses of Parliament & Elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. (No nominated members)
•Security deposit of Rs 15,000/-
•Supreme court inquires all disputes regarding President’s Election.
•Takes OATH in presence of Chief Justice of India, or in his absence, senior-most Judge of Supreme Court

Terms and Emoluments
•5 year term
•Article 57 says that there is no upper limit on the number of times a person can become President
•Can give resignation to Vice-President before full-term
•Present Salary- Rs. 1,00,000/month (including allowances & emoluments)

•Quasi-judicial procedure
•Can be impeached only on the ground of violation of constitution
•The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either House of the Parliament

•In case of office falls vacant due to death, resignation or removal, the Vice-President act as President. It he is not available then Chief Justice, it not then senior-most Judge of the Supreme court shall act as the President of India
•The election is to be held within 6 months of the vacancy

•Appoints PM, Ministers, Chief Justice & judge of Supreme Court & High Court, Chairman & members of UPSC, Comptroller and Auditor General, Attorney General, Chief Election Commissioner and other members of Election Commission of India, Governors, Members of Finance Commission, Ambassadors, etc
•Can summon & prorogue the sessions of the 2 houses & can dissolve Lok Sabha
•Appoints Finance Commission (after every 5 years) that recommends distribution of taxes between Union & State governments
•The President can promulgate 3 types of Emergencies:- 1.National Emergency (Article 352)
2.State Emergency (President’s Rule) (Article 356)
3.Financial Emergency (Article 360)
•He is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces of India
•President appoints Chief of Army, Navy and Air force
•Declares wars & concludes peace subject to the approval of the Parliament
•No money bill or demand for grant can be introduced or moved in Parliament unless it has been recommended by the President
•He has the power to grant pardon, reprieve or remit of punishment or commute death sentences

All Presidents of India and their Tenure

Dr. Rajendra Prasad : : 26.01.1950 to 13.05.1962
Dr. S. Radhakrishan : : 13.05.1962 to 13.05.1967 
Dr. Zakhir Hussain : : 13.05.1967 to 03.05.1969
V.V. Giri : : 03.05.1969 to 20.07.1969
Justice M. Hidayatullah : : 20.07.1969 to 24.08.1969
V.V. Giri : : 24.08.1969 to 24.08.1974
F. Ali Ahmed : : 24.08.1974 to 11.02.1977
B.D. Jatti : : 11.02.1977 to 25.07.1977
N. Sanjiva Reddy : : 25.07.1977 to 25.07.1982
Gaini Jail Singh : : 25.07.1982 to 25.07.1987
R. Venkataraman : : 25.07.1987 to 25.07.1992
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma : : 25.07.1992 to 25.07.1997
K.R. Narayanan : : 25.07.1997 to 25.07.2002
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam : : 25.07.2002 to 24.07.2007
Mrs. Pratibha Patil : : 25.07.2007 to 24.07.2012
Mr. Pranab Mukherjee : : 25.07.2012 to Till date


Following is the information about Vice President of India
•Elected by both the houses (Electoral College) in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and the vote being secret. Nominated members also participate in his election
•The Supreme court has the final and exclusive jurisdiction for resolving disputes and doubts relating to the election of the Vice President of India

•Citizen of India
•More that 35 years of Age
•Posses the qualification of membership of Rajya Sabha
•Not hold any office of profit under union, state of local authority. However, for this purpose, the President, Vice-President, Governor of a State and a Minister of the Union or a State, are not held to be holding an office of profit

Other Points
 •Holds office for 5 years. Can be re-elected
•Term can be cut short if he resigns or by a resolution of the Rajya Sabha passed by a majority of all the then members of the Rajya Sabha and agreed to by the Lok Sabha
•He is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. Since he is not a member of Rajya Sabha, he has no right to vote
•Being the Vice-President of India, he is not entitled for any salary, but he is entitled to the salary and allowances payable to the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
•All bills, resolution, motion can be taken in Rajya Sabha after his consent
•Can discharge the function of the President, the Vice-President shall not perform the duties of the office of the Chairman of Rajya Sabha and shall not be entitled to receive the salary of the Chairman. During this period, he is entitled for the salary and privileges of the President of India
•Present salary is Rs. 85,000/month

All Vice Presidents of India and their Tenure.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan : : 13.5.1952 to 12.5.1957
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan : : 13.5.1957 to 12.5.1962
Dr. Zakhir Hussain : : 13.5.1962 to 12.5.1967 
V. V. Giri : : 13.5.1967 to 3.5.1969
Bal Swarup Pathak : : 31.8.1969 to 30.8.1974
Shri Basappa Danappa Jatti : : 31.8.1974 to 30.8.1979
Justice Mohd. Hidayatullah : : 31.8.1979 to 30.8.1984
Shri R Venkataraman : : 31.8.1984 to 24.7.1987
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma : : 3.9.1987 to 24.7.1992 
K.R.Narayanan : : 21.8.1992 to 24.7.1997 
Shri Krishan Kant : : 21.8.1997 to 27.7.2002 
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat : : 19.8.2002 to 21.7.2007 
Hamid Ansari : : 21.7.2007 till date


Office of the Prime Minister of India, South Block, New Delhi  North Block
Powers of Prime Minister of India:-
•Real excutive authority
•He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Planning Commission, National Development Council, National Integration Council and Inter state Council
•The President convenes and prorogues all sessions of Parliament in Consultation with him
•Can recommend the dissolution of Lok Sabha before expiry
•Appoints the council of ministers
•Allocates portfolios. Can ask a minister to resign & can get him dismissed by President
•Can recommend to the President to declare emergency on grounds of war, external aggression or armed rebellion
•Advises President about President’s Rule in the State or emergency due to financial instability
•Leader of the House
All Prime Minister of India and their Tenure 
Jawahar Lal Nehru 15.08.1947 to 27.05.1964
Gulzari Lal Nanda 27.05.1964 to 09.06.1964
Lal Bahadur Shastri 09.06.1964 to 11.01.1966
Gulzai Lal Nanda 11.01.1966 to 24.01.1966
Indira Gandhi 24.01.1966 to 24.03.1977
Morarji Desai 24.03.1977 to 28.07.1979
Charan singh 28.07.1979 to 14.01.1980
Indira Gandhi 14.01.1980 to 31.10.1984
Rajiv Gandhi 31.10.1984 to 01.12.1989
V.P. Singh 01.12.1989 to 10.11.1990
Chandra Shekhar 10.11.1990 to 21.06.1991
P.V. Narsimha Rao 21.06.1991 to 16.05.1996
Atal Bihari Vajpayee 16.05.1996 to 01.06.1996
H.D. Deve Gowda 01.06.1996 to 21.04.1997
I.K. Gujral 21.04.1997 to 19.03.1998
Atal Bihari Vajpayee 19.03.1998 to 13.10.1999
Atal Bihari Vajpayee 13.10.1999 to 22.05.200
Dr. Manmohan Singh 22.05.2004 to 26.-5.2014
Narendra Modi 26.05.2014 to Till-date

Last Updated: 30 May 2016

18 February 2016

Indian Defense at a Glance

Indian Defense
•The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian defence system
•The whole administrative control of the Armed forces lies in the Ministry of Defence
•The Defence Minister (Raksha Mantri) is responsible to Parliament for all matters concerning defence of the country.
•Indian defence system has been divided into three services-
3.Air Force

Ministry of Defense and its responsibility

The Principal task of the Ministry of Defense is to obtain policy directions of the Government on all defence and security related matters and communicate them for implementation to the Serivce Headquarters, Inter-Service Organisations, Production Establishments and Research an Development Organisations. It is also required to ensure effective implementation of the Government's policy directions and the execution of approved programmes within the allocated resources.
Indian Defence Department
The principal functions of the Departments are as follows:- •The Department of Defence deals with Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) amd three services and various Inter-Service Organisations. It is also responsible for the Defence Budget, establishment matters, defence policy, matters relating to Parliament, defence cooperation with foreign countries and coordination of all activites
•The Department of Defence Production is headed by a Secretary and deals with matters pertaining to defence production, indigenisation of imported stores, equipment and spares, planning and control of department production units of the Ordance Factory Board and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs.)
•The Department of Defence Research and Development is headed by a Secretary, who is also the Scientific Advisor to the Raksha Mantri(Defence Minister). Its function is to advise the Government on scientific aspects of the military equipment and logistics and the formulation of research, design and development plans for equipment used by the Services.
•The Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare is headed by the Additional Secretary and deals with all resettlement, welfare and pensionary matters of Ex-Servicemen.
Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) was created on October 1, 2001 as a sequel to the decision by the Group of Ministers based on Kargil Committee Report. The staff of HQ IDS is provided from three Services, MEA, DRDO, Armed Forces HQ (AFHQ) Civil Services and DoD. IDS is presently functioning as staff in the advisory mode to the Chairman COSC, and is headed by the Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman COSC (CISC)
The three Services Headquarters, viz., the Army Headquarters, the Naval Headquarters and the Air Headquarters functions under the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), the Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) and the Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) respectively. They are assisted by their Principal Staff Officers (PSOs). The Inter-Services Organisations, under the Department of Defence are responsible for carrying out tasks related to common needs of the three Services such as medical care, public relations and personnel managedment of civilian staff in the Defence Headquarters.
A number of Committees dealing with defence related activities assist the Raksha Mantri(Defence Minister). The Chief of Staff Committee is a forum for the Service Chiefs to discuss matters having a bearing on the activities of the Services and to advise the Ministry. The position of Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee devolves on the longest serving Chief of Staff, and consequently rotates amongst the three services.
Finance Division in the Ministry of Defence deals with all matters having a financial implication. This Division is headed by Financial Advisor (Defence Services) and is fully integrated with the Ministry of Defence and performs an advisory rotle.

Indian Army

The Indian Army is organised into seven commands:-
Indian Army
Command : : Headquarter
1 Western command Chandigarh
2 Eastern command Kolkata
3 Northern command 56 APO
4 Southern command Pune
5 Central command Lucknow
6 Army Training Command Shimla
7 South Western Command Jaipur

The Indian Army is the world's second largest army in terms of military personnel. The basic responsibility of the Army is to safeguard the territorial integrity of the nation against external aggressio. In addition, the Army is often required to assist the civil administration during internal security disturbances and in the mainntenance of law and order, in organising relief operations during natural calamities like floods, earthquakes and cyclones and in the maintenance of essential services.

The Indian Army is one of the finest armies in the world. Modernisation and upgradation of Army is a continuous process to keep Armed Forces ready to meet any challenge of tomorrow. It is based on fiver years plans. Focus and core areas of modernisation has been:-
•Improvement in the Fire Power and increased Mobiliy
•All Weather Battle Field Surveillance capability
•Night Fighting capabilities
•Enhace capability of Special Force
•Capability for Network Centric Warfare
•NBC Protection
Army has its headquarters in New Delhi.
 It is head by Chief of the Army Staff and assisted by the Vice-Chief of the Army Staff and seven other Principal Staff Officers, namely, two Deputy Chief of Army Staff, Ajutant General, Quarter Master General, Master General of Ordinance, Military Secretary and Engineer-in-Chief. The army has following commands
Command : : Headquarter
1 Western command Chandigarh
2 Eastern command Kolkata
3 Northern command 56 APO
4 Southern command Pune
5 Central command Lucknow
6 Army Training Command Shimla
7 South Western Command Jaipur
Each under a General officer Commanding-n-Chief of the rank of a Lieutant-General. The Major Static Formation are divided into Areas, Independent Sub-Areas and sub-areas. Area is commanded by a General Officer Commanding of the rank of a Major General and an Independent Sub-Area and sub-area by a Brigadier.
 Indian army is divided broadly into two main categories:-
Indian Army consists of following ranks:- 1.General
2.Lt. General
3.Major General
6.Lt. Colonel

Indian Air Force

Indian Air Force is organized into seven commands:-
Command : : Headquarter
1 Western command New Delhi
2 Central command Allahabad
3 Eastern command Shillong
4 South western command Jodhpur
5 Training command Bangaluru
6 Maintenance command Nagpur
7 Southern command Thiruvananthapuram

The Indian Air Force was officially established on 8 October 1932.
Brief History
India Air Force LogoThe past 75 years have been eventful for Indian Air Force (IAF) from a flight of 'Wapitis' in 1932, to the fourth largest, professionally acclaimed, strategic Air Force responsible for guarding Nation's vital interests. From 1948 to Kargil, the IAF has always fielded wining capabilities. IAF's professional and prompt operations in peace time, at home and abroad and in peacekeeping, have earned many accolades.
 The first five pilots commissioned into the Indian Air Force were H C Sircar, Subroto Mukerjee, Bhupendra Singh, A B Awan and Amarjeet Singh. A sixth officer, S N Tandon had to revert to Ground duties as he was too short. All of them were commissioned as ''Pilot Officers'' in 1933. Subroto Mukerjee later went on to become the IAF's first Indian Chief of Air Staff. Subsequent batches inducted before World_War_2 included Aspy Engineer, K K Majumdar, Narendra, R H D Singh, S N Goyal, Baba Mehar Singh, Prithpal Singh and Arjan Singh.
 The Indian Air Force is headed by Chief of Air Staff with its headquarters at New Delhi. He is assisted by six Principal Staff Officers, Vice Chief of Air Staff, Deputy Chief of Air Staff, Air Officer Incharge Administration, Air Officer Incharge Maintenance, Air Officer Incharge Personnel and Training and Inspector General Flight Safety and Inspection.

Command : : Headquarter
1 Western command New Delhi
2 Central command Allahabad
3 Eastern command Shillong
4 South western command Jodhpur
5 Training command Bangaluru
6 Maintenance command Nagpur
7 Southern command Thiruvananthapuram
The Air force combat fleet is made up of 45 squadrons consists a variety of fighters, fighter-bombers, fighter interceptors, bombers and transport and logistics support aircraft. 1.Air chief Marshal
2.Air Marshal
3.Air Vice Marshal
4.Air Commodore
5.Group Captain
6.Wing Commander
7.Squardron Leader
8.Flt. Lieutenant
9.Flying officers

Indin Navy

Indian Navy is organised into following commands:-
Command : : Headquarter
1 Eastern command Vishakhapatnam
2 Southern command Kochi
3 Western command Mumbai
Ranks:- 1.Navy
3.Vice Admiral
4.Read Admiral
8.Lt Commander
The Indian Navy is divided into the following broad categories •Administration
•Logistics and Material
•The Fleets
•The Naval Aviation
and •The Submarine Arm.

Indian Coast Guard

The Coast Guard is headed by a Director General. It headquarters is based in the Capital, New Delhi.
 It hasIndian Coast Guard
•3 Regional headquarters at Mumbai, Chennai and Port Blair
•1 District Headquarters in each of the nine coastal states and 2 in the Union territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands.
•4 Coast Guard Stations, one each at Vadinar, Okha, Tuticorin and Mandapam.
•It also has aerodromes in Daman and Chennai
•Air Enclaves at Goa, Kolkata and Port Blair.

Brief History
Indian Coast Guard LogoEmergence of the Coast Guard in India on 01 Feb 1977 as a new service was the result of an awareness that had been growing for some time in the Government for the requirement to enforce National Laws in the waters under national jurisdiction and ensure safety of life and property at sea. The Coast Guard is responsible for surveillance of the Indian territorial waters and the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone to prevent poaching, smuggling and other illegal activities; to conduct search and rescue operations; to protect and preserve marine environment.
 The Indian Coast Guard is the fourth service created to guard Republic of India's vast coastline. It was created on 19 August 1978 as an independent entity as per the Coast Guard Act. Indian Coast Guard is an Armed forces of India and, ICG is not a part of the Indian Paramilitary Forces.
The Primary duty of Indian Coast Guard is : •To protect our ocean and offshore wealth including Oil, Fish and Minerals.
•Protect the artificial Islands and off-shore installations.
•To assist Mariners in distress and safeguard life and property at sea.
•To enforce Maritime Laws with respect to sea, shipping, poaching, smuggling and narcotics.
•To preserve marine environment and ecology and to protect rare species.
•To collect scientific data
•To assist Indian Navy during war situation
Its Bases •3 Regional headquarters at Mumbai, Chennai and Port Blair
•1 District Headquarters in each of the nine coastal states and 2 in the Union territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands.
•4 Coast Guard Stations, one each at Vadinar, Okha, Tuticorin and Mandapam.
•It also has aerodromes in Daman and Chennai
•Air Enclaves at Goa, Kolkata and Port Blair.

Recruitment in Armed Forces

The Armed Forces epitomises the ideas of service, sacrifice, patriotism and our country's comosite culture. The recruitment to the Armed Forces is voluntary and every citizen of India, irrespective of his caste, class, religion and community is eligible for recruitment into the Armed Forces provided he meets the laid down physical, medical and educational criteria.
Recruitment of Commissioned Officers in the Armed Forces through UPSC: Commissioned Officers in the Armed Forces are recruited mainly through the UPSC which conducts the following two All India Competitive Examinations:- 1.National Defence Academy (NDA) and Naval Academy(NA): The UPSC holds entrance examinations twice a year for entry into NDA and NA. Candidates on completion of 10+2 examinations or while in the 12th standard, are eligible to compete.
2.Combined Defence Services Examination(CDSE): CDSE is conducted by the UPSC twice a year. University graduates are eligible to appear in the examination. Successful candidates join the Military Academy/Air Force Academy or Naval Academy for Regular and Officers Academy (OTA) for Short Service Commission.

Paramilitary and Reserved Forces

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
•It was established in 1962, after the Chinese attack.
•It is basically employed in the Northern borders for monitoring the borders and also to stop smuggling and illegal immigration

National Security Guard (NSG)
•It was established in 1984
•It has been established to counter the surge of militancy in the country.
•It is highly trained force which deals with militants effectively

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
•It was set up in 1969 after the recommendations of Justice B Mukherji.
•Its objective is to monitor the industrial complexes of Central Government

Assam Rifles
•It was established in 1835 and is the oldest paramilitary force in the country
•Its main objective is to keep vigilance of international borders in North East and countering insurgency operations in Arunachal Pradesh. Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland

Border Security Force (BSF)
•It was established in 1965
•It keeps a vigil over the international borers against the intrusion in the country.

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
•It was set up in 1939
•Its main objective is to assist the State/Union Territory Police in maintenance of law and order
•The 88th Battalion of CPRF, known as ‘Mahila Battalion’ (commissioned on March 30, 1986) is the world’s first paramilitary force comprising entirely of women.

National Cadet Corps (NCC)
•It was established in 1948
•Its main objective is to stimulate interest among the youth in the defence of the country in order to build up a reserve man power to expand armed forces

Territorial Army (TA)
•It was established in 1948
•It is a voluntary, part time force (between 18 and 35 years), not professional soldiers, but civilans, who wish to assist in defence of the country

Home Guards
•It was established in 1962, to assist the police in maintaining security, to help defence forces and to help local authorities in case of any eventuality.

Coast guard
•It was setup in 1978
•It main objective is to protect the maritime and other national interests in the maritime zones of India

Intelligence Bureau (IB)
•It was set up in 1920
•It objective is to collect secret information relating to country’s security
•It was originally set up as Central Special Branch (CSB) in 1987 and renamed IB in 1920.

Central Bureau of Intelligence (CBI)
•It was established in 1953
•Its objective is to investigate cases of misconduct by public servants, cases of cheating, embezzlement and fraud
•CBI is also entrusted with the investigation of international crime cases in collaboration with INTERPOL

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)
•It was established in 1986
•Its objective is to collect crime statistics at the national level, information of inter-state and international criminals to help investigation agencies.

Rapid Action Force (RAF)
•It was established in 1992
•Under the operational command of CPRF
•10 battalions of the CPRF have been reoriented for tackling communal riots in the country

Defence Production Units

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) 1964 12 Bengaluru(5), Koraput, Nasik, Karwa, Kanpur, Lucknow, Barrackpur, Hyderabad
UnitEstablishedTotal FactoriesPlaces

Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) Sep 1959 Bengaluru, Ghaziabad, Pune, Machilipatnam, Taloja (Maharashtra), Panchula (Haryana), Kotadwara, Hyderabad, Chennai.
Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) Mar 1964 Bengaluru, Mysore, Kolar Gold Fields
Bharat Dynamics Limited jan 1970 Hyderabad
Mishra Dhadu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) 1973 1 Hyderabad
Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 1957 1 Goa

Military Training Centers

Following are the Military Training Centers in India.

Military Training Centers : : Place
National Defence Academy : : Khadakvasla (W. Bengal)
Indian Military Academy : : Dehra Dun (Uttaranchal)
Rashtriya Indian Military College : : Dehra Dun (Uttaranchal)
National Defence College New Delhi
Defence Services Staff College : : Welliington
Armed Forces Medical College : : Pune (Maharashtra)
Officer’s Training School : : Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
College of Combat, Mhow (Army War College) Armoured Corps Centre and School : : Deolali (Maharashtra)
College of Military Engineering Kirkee : : Pune (Maharashtra)
Military College of Telecommunications Engineering : : Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
Army Cadet College : : Dehra Dun (Uttaranchal)
College of Material Management : : Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
High Altitude Warfare School: : Gulmarg (J & K)
Army Service Corps School : : Bareilly (UP)
EME School : : Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
Millitary College of Electronics and Mechnical Engineering, Remount and veterinary Corps Centre and School : : Merrut (UP)
Army Educational Corps Training School and Depot : : Pune (Maharashtra)
Corpse of Military Police Centre and School : : Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Army School of Physical Training : : Pune (Maharashtra)
Army/Air Transport Support School : : Agra (UP)
Army Clerk Training School : : Aurangabad (Maharashtra)
Army School of Mechanical Transport : : Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School: : Vairengte (Mizoram)
Institution of Nation Integration : : Pune (Maharshtra)

Naval Training Centers

Following are the Naval Training Centers in India.
Naval Training Centers : : Place
INS Cilka : : Bhubaneshwar (Orrisa)
INS Circars : : Visakhapattanam (AP)
INS Hamla : : Malad, Mumbai (Maharashtra)
INS Mandovi : : Goa
INS Shivaji : : Lonawala (Maharashtra)
INS Valsura : : Jamnagar (Gujrat)
INS Venduruthy : : Kochi (Kerala)
Naval Academy : : Kochi
Navy Shipwright School : : Viskhapattanam (AP)
Sailor’s Training Establishment : : Dabolim (Goa)

AirForce Training Centers

On 15 Aug 1947, the Air Force Training Establishments located in India were: •Initial Training Wing, Coimbatore formed on 11 Jul 46.
•Elementary Flying Training School, Jodhpur formed on Jul 42.
•Advanced Flying Training School, Ambala formed on Jul 41.
•No.1 Ground Training School, Jalahalli formed on Jul 47.
•No.2 Ground Training School, Tamabaram formed on Feb 47
Currently we have following are the AirForce Training Centers in India.
Air Force Training Centers : : Place
Air Force Administrative College : : Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
Air Force Academy : : Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
Air Force Technical College : : Jalahalli (Karnataka)
Air Force School Sambre, : : Belgaum (Karnataka)
Flying Instructors’ School : : Tambaram (Tamil Nadu)
Elementrary Flying School : : Bidar (Karnataka)
Fighter Training and Transport : : Hakimpur and Yelahanka(Karnataka)
Training Wings of the Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine : : Bangluru (Karnataka)
Paratroopers Training School : : Agra (Uttar Pradesh)
Navigation and Signal School : : Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
College of Air Warfare : : Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
Ground Training Institutes : : Vadodara (Gujarat) and Barrackpur (West Bengal)

Defence Training Institutions:

A large number of training institutions in the Defence Sector work in coordination with one other. The Important one are described inthe following paragraphs:-
•Sainik Sachools:- Sainik Sachools were established as joint ventures of the Central and State Government. These are under the overall fovernance of Sainik Schools Society. At present there are around 22 Sainik Schools located all over India.
The Objective of Sainik Schools include brining quality public school education within the reach of the common man, all round development of a child's personality and to remove regional imbalance in the Officers' Cadre of the Armed Forces. The Sainik Schools prepare boys academically, physically and mentally to join Armed Forces through the National Defence Academy (NDA).
•Rashtriya Military School:- The five Military Schools in the country at Ajmer, Bengluru, Belgaum, Chail and Dholpur are affiliated to CBSE. The Military Schools admits boys in class VI, based on an all-india Entrance Examination. While 67 percents seats are reserved for wards for JCOs/ORs called 'entitled category', out of 33 % non-entitled category seats, 20% are reserved for wards of service officers.
•Rashtriya Indian Military College:- The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun was founded on 13 March 1922 with the objective of providing necessary preliminary training to boys of Indian birth or domicile, whishing to become officer in Indian Armed Forces of India. The RIMC is now a premier educational institutions in the country. Selection for RIMC is through a written examination and interview conducted through the state government. The institution now serves as a feeder institute to the National Defence Academy, Khadakvasla (Pune).
•National Defence Academy:- The National Defence Academy (NDA), Khadakwasla is a premier Inter Service training institution where future officers of Armed Forces are trained. The training involves an exacting schedule of three years before the cadets join their respective Services Academies, viz., Indian Military Academy, Naval Academy and Air Force Academy.
•Indian Military Academy:-The Indian Military Academy (IMA), Dehradun transform yound men into courageous, dynamic and erudite young officers of integrity, who are to bear and brunt of battle, or hardship whilst guarding the nation's frontiers. IMA established in 1932, imparts training to cadets for commission into the Army.
•Officers Training Academy:- Established in 1963, the Officers Training School (OTS) was re-designated as Officers Training Academy (OTA) from January 1, 1988 on completion of 25 years of its existence. Its main task before 1965 was to train Gentlemen Cadets for grant of emergency Commission. From 1965 onwards, the Academy has started training cadets for Short Service Commission. With the entry of women officers into the Army since September 21, 1992, around 100 lady officers now get commissioned from OTA every year.
•Defence Services Staff College:- Defence Services Staff College (DSSC), Wellington is a premier tri-service training establishment imparting training to middle level officers (Major and equivalent) of the three wings of Indian Armed Forces, friendly foreign countries and Indian Civil Services.
•College of Defence Management:- The Institutte of Defence Management(IDM), Secunderabad was established in June 1970 to impart modern, scientific management training to the Armed Forces Officers. The IDM was renamed as College of Defence Management (CDM) in 1980. The college has trained over 5000 officers of the rank of Major to Major General and equivalents of the three Services through its on-campus programmes. It has also given exposure in defence management to large number of officers through external capsules. Officers from Para-Military Forces, Ministry of Defence, research and development organisations and friendly foreign countries also attend various on-campus programmes.
•College of Military Engineering:- The college of Military Engineering (CME) at Pune is a premier technical institution. The training is conducted for personnel of the Corps of Engineers, other Arms and Services, Navy, Air Force, Para Military Forces, Police and civilians. Besides, personnel from friendly foreign countries are also trained. CME is affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) for the award of B.Tech and M.Tech degrees.
•National Defence College:- The National Defence College (NDC) inaugurated on 27 April 1960 is the only institution in the country that imparts knowledge on all aspecs of national security and strategy. Senior Defence and Civil Services Officer participate in a 47-week comprehensive programme of national security and strategy

Defence Ordance Factories

The Ordance Factories Organisation is the largest and oldest departmentally run production organisation in the country and is primarily engaged in the manufacture of Defence Hardware for the Armed Forces. The Ordance Factories was established with a mandate to ensure self-reliance in manufacturing of Defence hardware for the Armed Forces. The Ordance Factories Organization is a fine blend of old and state-of-the-art factories. The first Ordinance Factory was established in 1801 at Cossipore, near Kolkata. There are 39 Ordance Factories, geographically distributed all over the country at 24 locations. Ordance Factories, nalanda and Ordance Factory, Korwa are in project stage.

Defence Undertakings

The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was formed in October 1964 with its Corporate Office at Bengluru. The company has 19 production division and 9 R & D Centres located in six States. It is largest public sector undertakings under the Department of Defence Production. HAL's product range consists of aircrafts, helicopters, aero-engines, accessories and avionics. It has diversified into manufactures of structures for aerospace launch vehicles and satellites and industrial and marine gas turbine engines. HAL is a major partner for the space programmes of ISRO. It manufacturers structures and assemblies for the launch vehicles and satellites.
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) is the leading professional electronics company in the country engaged in the design, development and manufacture of sophisticated state-of-the-art electronic equipment/components for the use of defence services, paramilitary organisations and other infrastructure providers in the telecom sector. BEL has been accorded "NAVRATNA" status company in 2007. Based on the MoU performance, the company has been rated in the "Excellent" category continuously for the last 8 years by the Department of Public Enterprises (DPE). With its 9 production units and 31 manufacturing divisions spread across 7 states, the company focuses on Research and Development to generate business using the 'state-of-the-art' manufacturing and testing facilities.
The Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) was established in May 1964 and commenced operations from January 1965. BEML is the prime earth moving and costruction equipment manufacturer in the country and also produces ground supporting equipment for Armed Forces for movement of men and material. The company also manufactures railway coaches and wagons for Indian Railways and defence forces. Recently, BEML has diversified its business by successfully assembling state-of-the-art stainless metro coaches for Delhi Metro Corporation(DMRC) under technical collaboration with M/s Rotem of South Korea.
Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE), was taken over by the Government of India on 1st April 1960. GRSE is among the leading shipyards in the country and the premium yard in the East. GRSE builds a wide range of ships ranging from sophisticated warships to ultra modern commercial vessels and from small harbour crafts to fast and poweful patrol vessels. India's first ever tranker fleet too was built at GRSE. The latest on the list is new generation hovercraft.
Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) , the youngest and smallest of the Defence shipyards, has the privilege of having implemented the first successful enterprises planning system amongst the Defence Public Sector Undertakings. The product range of the Shipyard comprises of 105m Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPV), 105m Naval Offshore Patrol Vessels (NOPV), 90m Offshore Patrol Vessels (90m OPV), Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPV), 50m Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV), Mssile Boats (MB), Survey Vessels (SV), Extra Fast Attack Crafts (XFAC), Sails Training Ships(STS), Landing Craft Utility (LCU), Seaward Defence Boats (SDB), Torpedo Recovery Vessels (TRV), Passenger Vessels (PV), Tugs etc.
The Bharat Dyncamics Limited (BDL) was set up in 1970 for manufacture of guided missiles. It is amongest a few strategic industries in the public sector and possesses the capability to produce advanced Guided Missile Systems. Besides producing indigenously developed P-II missile systems, BDL is engaged in the production of Konkurs M and Invar (3UBK-20) missiles in collaboration with Rusia. BDL is working in close assocaition with DRDO for technology absorption/assimilation and extending support by providing missile sub systems/integrated missiles for conducting various trials of missiles like AKASH, NAG, Article K-15, AGNI VARIANTS (A1, A2 and A3).
Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) was incorporated as a Public Sector Undertakings in 1973 to achieve self-reliance in areas of Super alloys, Titanium alloys and Special Purpose steels required for strategic sectors like Aeronautics, Space, Armaments, Atomic Energy and Navy. Special products like Molybdenum coins and plates, Titanuium and Stainless Steel tubes, alloys for electrical and electronic applications like soft magnatic alloys controlled expansion alloys and Resistance alloys are also in the product range of MIDHANI.

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

Science drives the nation in peace and war. Impact of science in any country is mainfold namely social, strategic and financial. The vision of DRDO is to empower India with cutting-edge defence technologies. It has the mission of achieving self-reliance in critical defence technologies and systems by indigenisation and innovation while equipping the armed forces with state-of-the-art weapon systems and equipment.
DRDO came into existence in 1958. It was the amalgamation of Technical Dev Establishment (TDEs) of Indian Army and Directorate of Tech Dev and Production (DTDP) with Defence Science Organisation (DSO).
DRDO is headed by Scientific Advisor to Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister), SA to RM, who is also the secretary, Deptt of Defence R&D and Director General, R&D. The Sa to RM is assisted by 7 Cheif Controllers. The organisations has a two tier system, viz., the Technical and Corporate Directorates at DRDO Bhawan, New Delhi; and laboratories/establishments located at different stations all over the country. The following is the organisational structure of DRDO. Dr DS Kothari was the first SA to RM.
•Total No. of Labs/Estts- 52
•Manpower Training Institutes-3
•Integrated Test Range for Performance evaluation-2
The responsibilities of DRDO can be consolidated under the following categories:- •Design,development & lead to produce state-of-art Sensors, Weapons Systems, Platforms and allied equipment (Strategic systems, Tactical systems, Dual Use technologies)
•Research in Life Sciences, to optimise combat effectiveness and promote well-being of service personnel in harsh environment
•Develop infrastructure and highly trained Manpower for strong defence technology base.
Some of the major Contributions of DRDO have been the following:-
Systems : : System Development/Accepted/Introduced
1 Missile System : :  Agni, Prithvi, Brahmos, Dhanush, Trishul, Akash & Nag
2 Naval Systems : : HUMSA, USHUS, TAL, Torpedoes-fire control system and Advanced Experimental.
3 Electronic Systems : : SARARI, ACCCS, Surveillance Radar, SUMUKTA, SANGRAHA, WLR, SV-2000, CIDSS, CNR and Indra
4 Combat Vehicle and Engg. : : MBT, Arjun, Armored, Engg recce Vehicle(AERV) Bridge Layer Tank, Armoured Amphibious Dozer, SARVATRA, Trackway Expedient Mat Ground Surfacing, Armoured Ambulance BMP-II, Career Mortar Tracked on BMP-II & Operation Theatre Complex on Wheels
5 Aero Systems : : LCA, Lakshya Pilotless Aircraft, Nishant UAV "Tempest" EW Suite, Tranquil Reader Warning Receiver (RWR), Tarang RWR Project Vetrivale, High Accuracy Direction Finding (HADF) RWR, Jagur Mission Compter & Bheema 1000 Aircraft Weapon Loading Trolley
6 Armament Systems : : 5.56mm INSAS (Amn. LMG & Rifle), Pinaka-Multibarrel Rocket Launcher System, FSAPDS Mk-I/II Ammunition, Influence Mines Mk-I, Multimode Grenade etc.
7 Materials : : AB Class Steel for Naval Applicaton, Titanium Sponge, NBC Protective, Clothing/Permeable Suites, Extreme cold weather Clothing systems, Blast Protection Suits, Synthetic Life Jacket, Anti Riot Polycarbonate Shield, Anti Riot Helmet, Brake pads for Aircrafts, Heavy alloy Armour Penetrator Rods, Jackal Armour, Kanchan Armour, Spade M1.
8 Life Sciences Systems : : Life Support Systems for Army, Navy and Airforce Personnel, NBC Canister, Water Prison Detection Kit, Portable, Decontamination Apparatus, NBC Filters/ventilation systems, First Aid Kit, CW Type A/B, Decontamination kit/solution.
Last Updated: 30 May 2016

Indian Weather Facts All in One

India has 'Tropical Monsoon' type of climate. The word monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word 'Mausim' which means seasonal reversal of the winds during the course of the year.

Climate of India
1.The whole of India has a tropical monsoonal climate, since the greater part of the country lies within the trophies, and the climate is influenced by the monsoons.
2.The position of the mountain ranges and direction of the rain-bearing winds are the two main factors that determine the climate of India
3.Alternating seasons is the chief characteristic of India's Climate.

Factors Affecting the Climate of India:

1.Latitude: India lies between 8 0 N and 37 0 N latitudes. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of India, thus making the southern half of India in the Torrid Zone and the northern half in the Temperature Zone.
2.Himalaya Mountains: The Himalayas play an important role in lending a sub-tropical touch to the climate of India. The lofty Himalaya Mountains form a barrier which effects the climate of India. It prevents the cold winds of north Asia from blowing into India, thus protecting it from severely cold winters. It also traps the Monsoon winds, forcing them to shed their moisture within the sub-continent.
Temperature decreases with height. Places in the mountains are cooler than places on the plains.

4.Distance from the sea:
With a long coastline, large coastal areas have an equable climate. Areas in the interior of India are far away from the moderating influence of the sea. Such areas have extremes of climate.
5.Geographical Limits:
i.>>Western Disturbances: The low pressure systems that originate over the eastern Mediterranean region in winter and move eastwards towards India passing over Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan are responsible for the winter rain in northern India.
ii.>>Conditions in the Regions Surrounding India: Temperature and pressure conditions in East Africa, Iran, Central Asia and Tibet determine the strength of the monsoons and the occasional dry spells. For example, high temperatures in East Africa may draw the monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean into that region thus, causing a dry spell.
iii.>>Conditions over the Ocean: The weather conditions over the Indian ocean and the China Sea may be responsible for typhoons which often affect the east coast of India.
iv.>>Jet Streams: Air currents in the upper layers of the atmosphere known as jet steams could determine the arrival of the monsoons and departure of the monsoons. The Scientists are studying the jet streams and how it may affect the climate of India but much remains to be learned about this phenomena.

Climatic Regions of India

Following are the climatic regions of India.
1.Tropical Rain Forest:
a).This type of climate is found on the west coastal plain and Sahyadris and in parts of Assam
b).The temperatures are high, not falling below 18.2 degree c even during winter and rising to 29 degree C in April and May, the hottest months.
c).Dense, forests and plantation agriculture with crops like tea, coffee and spices are the characteristics vegetation in the area.
2.Tropical savanna:
a).Most of the peninsula, except the semiarid zone in the leeside of the Sahyadris experiences this type of climate.
b).A long dry weather lasting through winter and early summer and high temperature remaining above 18.2 degree C even during the winter seasons and rising as high as 32 degree C in summer are the chief characteristics of this climate.
c).Nagpur has a mean temperature of 35.4 degree C for May which is the hottest month and 20.7 degree C for December the coldest month in the year.
d).The natural vegetation all over the area is savanna.
3.Tropical Semi-Arid Steppe Climate:
a).The rain-shadow belt, running southward from central Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu, in the leeside of the Sahyadris and Cardamom Hills come under this type of climate of low and uncertain rainfall.
b).Temperature varying from 20 degree C to 23.8 degree C for December and 32.8 degree C for May. Agriculturally, the climate is suitable only for dry farming and livestock rearing.
4.Tropical and Sub-Tropical Steppe:
a).This type of climate occurs over a broad crescent from Punjab to Kachchh between the Thar Desert to its west and the more humid climates of the Ganga Plain and the Peninsula to its east and south respectively.
b).The climate, therefore, is transitional between these two areas. The annual rainfall is not only low but it is also highly erratic.
5.Tropical Desert :
a).The western part of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan and most of the part of Kachchh form the sandy wastes of the Thar which experiences a typical desert climate.
b).Ganganagar has recorded a maximum temperature of 50 degree C, the highest record.
6.Humid Sub-Tropical With Winter:
a).A large area to the south of the Himalayas, east of the tropical and sub-tropical steppe and north of the tropical savanna running in a long belt from Punjab to Assam with a south-westward extension into Rajasthan east of the Aravalli Range, has this type of climate.
b).Winers are dry except for a little rain received from the westerly depressions.
7.Mountain Climate:
a).The Himalayan and Karakoram ranges experience this type of climate with sharp contrasts between the temperatures of the sunny and shady slopes, high diurnal range of temperatures and high variability of rainfall.
b).The trans-Himalayan region, Ladakh, where the south-west monsoon fails to reach, has a dry and cold climate and a spare and stunned vegetation.
8.Drought in India:
a).The dry areas of Rajasthan and the adjoining part of Haryana and Gujarat are liable to frequent drought conditions.
b).Another area liable to frequent drought lies on the leeward side of the western Ghats.

Seasons in India

1.Traditional Seasons
Seasons Indian Calender Gregorian Calender
Vasanta Chaitra-Vaisakha March-April
Grishma jyaistha-Asadha May-June
Varsha Sravana-Bhadra July-August
Sharada Asvina-Kartika September-October
Hemanta Margashirsa-Pausa November-December
Shishira Magha-Phalguma January-February
2.Season based on Monsoon: The climate of India may be described as tropical monsoon. Even northern India, lying beyond the tropical zone, acquires a tropical touch marked by the relatively high temperatures. The large size of the country and its varied relief play a crucial role in determining the climatic variations in different part of India. But the seasonal rhythm of the monsoon is apparent throughout India. It may conveniently from the basis for dividing the year into different seasons. The most characteristic feature of the monsoon is the complete reversal of winds. It eventually leads to the alternation of seasons. India is known as the "land of the endless growing season".
 The year is divided into four seasons:
#1.The Cold Weather Season:
(N.E. Monsoons) The Cold weather seasons starts in January. The north-east monsoon is fully established over India this seasons. the mean January day temperature in Chennai and Calicut is about 24-25 degree C while in the northern plains it is about 10-15 degree C. In December, the sunshines directly over the Trophic of Capricorn. The landmass of Asia, including the sub-continent, cools down very rapidly. There is a high pressure over the continent. The Indian Ocean, being warmer, has a relatively low pressure.
Three Reasons For Excessive Colds in North India
a).States like Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan being far away from the moderating influence of sea experience continental climate.
b).The snowfall in the nearly Himalayan ranges create cold wave situation.
c).Around February, the cold winds coming from Caspean Sea and Turkmenistan bring cold wave along with frost and fog over N. Western part of India.
N.E.Trade Winds (prevailing winds in the tropical Latitudes), blow, land to sea. These winds, being off shore do not give rain. In this season western disturbances bring light rainfall, most beneficial to the rabi crop in N.W. India. This rainfall decreases towards the east and the south. The Peninsular region of India, however does not have any well-defined cold weather season. There is hardly any seasonal change in the distribution pattern of the temperature in coastal areas because of moderating influence of sea and the proximity to equator.
#2.The Hot Weather Season:
From mid March to May the sun moves over the Equator towards tropic of Cancer. By June 21, it is directly overhead the Trophic of Cancer. In March, the highest day temperatures of about 38 degree C occur in the Deccan Plateau. Therefore,
a).Peninsular India, places south of Satpuras experience temperature between 26-32 degree C.
b).Central India, comprising of Delhi and Madhya Pradesh experience temperature between 40-45 degree C.
c).North-West India, comprising mainly of Rajasthan has very high temperature (45 degree C), due also to features like sandy soil, direct insulation and lack of cloud cover.
Storms During the Hot Weather Season
a).Mango Showers (since the rain showers are good for the mango trees) occurs along the coast of Kerala.
b).Norwester/Kalbaisakhi (Dark Clouds in the month of Baisakh) occurs in Assam and West Bengal. These are thunderstorms, accompanied with strong winds are heavy rainfall. This is good for the tea crop in Assam and the jute and rice in West Bengal. In Assam these storms are called Bardoli chherha.
c).Loo is the name given to the hot, dry winds that blow in the Northern Plains. It is very common in Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh (called "aandhi") and Bihar.
d).Blossom Shower with this shower, coffee flowers blossom in Karnataka and its nearby areas.
#3.The South-West Monsoon Season:
This season begins in June and lasts until September. The low pressure which existed over Norther Plain is further intensified. It is strong enough to attract the moisture bearing winds from the Indian Ocean.
a)Facts about S.W. Monsoon
.The bulk of rainfall is received during this season in almost every part of India except Tamil Nadu.
b).The amount of rainfall received depends on the relief of the region.
c).The rain is unreliable and there are dry intervals.
d).The S.E Trade Winds from the Southern Hemisphere are drawn into India as the S.W. Monsoon Winds after they cross the Equator. Due to the triangular shape of India, the S.W.Monsoon Winds are divided into branches - the Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal Branch.
The Arabian Sea Branch: It gives very heavy rainfall, more than 200 cm, to the windward side of Western Ghats. The Deccan Plateau, which lies on the leeward side of the Western Ghats, receives less than 150 cm of rainfall. Further east, rainfall decreases for eg, Hyderabad gets less than 100 cm while Chennai gets even less than 40 cm of rainfall. It does not give much rain to Rajasthan because of Aravali Ranges lie parallel to the direction of winds and hence condensation does not occur. Therefore, Rajasthan gets less than 25 cm rainfall. These winds advance northwards, attracted to the low pressure in India. Punjab at the foothill of the Shiwalik, get Relief Rainfall.
Bay of Bengal Branch: The Bay of Bengal Branch which also blows from the southwest direction, is deflected by the Arakhan Mountains of Myanmar and the N.E. Hills of India (Garo, Khasi and Jaintia) towards genetic plain. The delta of Ganga-Brahmaputra and the wind-ward side of the N.E. Hills of India get heavy rain. For example, Cherrapunji on the windward side gets 2500 cm of rainfall, while Shillong on the leeward slope gets about 250 cm. The rainfall decreases as the winds reach the eastern Himalayas and blow westward into the Ganga Plain, attracted by the low pressure in Punjab and Rajasthan.
#4.The Retreating of S.W. Monsoon Season:
This season lasts through October to December. The temperature in the Northern Plains begins to decrease as the Sun's rays no longer fall directly at the Tropic of Cancer. In September, the Sun shine directly at the Equator. The low pressure over the Northern Plain is not longer strong enough to attract the Monsoon Winds into the heart of India. By the end of September, the Monsoon winds are drawn only upto Punjab, by mid-October upto the Central India and by the early November upto Souther India. Thus, the S.W. Monsoon winds seem to withdraw in stages during this season. That is why this season is known as Retreating S.W. Monsoon season.
 This season is marked by cyclones in the Bay of Bengal. They hit the east coast of India and Bangladesh causing widespread damage to life, property and crops.
Difference between the Retreating S.W. Monsoon and North East Monsoon
i>>.They blow during the months of October to December
ii>>.This is a season of transition between the hot, rainy season and the cold, dry season
iii>>.Characterised by oppressive head and humidity known as "October Heat"
iv>>.They blow in the S.W. direction but are not strong enough to blow right into the Norther Plain.
v>>.The withdraw in stages which results in decreasing rain

a).They blow during the months of January to mid March.
b).This is the cold weather season
c).This is a very pleasant season with low temperatures, low humidity, clear skies.
d).These winds blow in N.E direction from the land to the sea.
e).They do not give rain.

Distribution of Rainfall in India

Rainfall is the important element of Indian economy. Although the monsoons effect most part of India, the amount of rainfall varies from heavy to scanty on different parts. There is great regional and temporal variation in the distribution of rainfall. Over 80% of the annual rainfall is received in the four rainy months of June to September. The average annual rainfall is about 125 cm, but it has great spatial variations.

a).Areas of Heavy Rainfall (Over 200cm) : The highest rainfall occurs in west costs, on the western Ghats as well as the Sub-Himalayan areas in North East and Meghalaya Hills. Assam, West Bengal, West Coast and Southern slopes of eastern Himalayas.
b).Areas of Moderately Heavy Rainfall (100-200 cm) : This rainfall occurs in Southern Parts of Gujarat, East Tamil Nadu, North-eastern Peninsular, Western Ghats, eastern Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orrisa, the middle Ganga valley.
c).Areas of Less Rainfall (50-100 cm) : Upper Ganga valley, eastern Rajasthan, Punjab, Southern Plateau of Karnataka, Andhra Pradessh and Tamil Nadu.
d).Areas of Scanty Rainfall (Less than 50 cm) : Northern part of Kashmir, Western Rajasthan, Punjab and Deccan Plateau. The two significant features of India's rainfall is that i. in the north India, rainfall decreases westwards and ii. in Peninsular India, except Tamil Nadu, it decreases eastward.

Facts About Indian Monsoon

•Rainfall occurs in summer
•Rainfall is erratic and unpredictable
•Rainfall is unevenly distributed
•Rainfall affects Indian economy

a).Though the jet streams go a long way in explaining the origin of monsoon some questions remain unanswered. The great variation in the amount of rainfall both spatially and temporally, the high degree of uncertainty related to the date of arrival etc. are unexplained. Meteorologists have been trying to explain these phenomena from different angles relating to wide variety of generalisation. They have been monitoring huge high pressure or anticyclone zones that form a few kilometers below the jet streams. This ridge hovers over south Goa. It has been noticed that if the ridge moves towards karwar in Karnataka it does not augur well for the monsoon. This high-pressure zone, it is reasoned, blocks the low flowing south westerly monsoon from intensifying over the west coast. When it is not positioned well, several meteorologists remain skeptical about the monsoon's performance.
b).The unusual cooling of surface temperatures over the Arabian Sea by as much as 3 to 4 degrees before the onset of monsoon is another curious phenomenon. This is due to the cool Somali current. It pushes the cool waters of the Indian Ocean towards the Arabian Sea and the drop in temperature seen to have an impact on the progress of the rains.
c).Just before the monsoon sets over south-east Asia the atmosphere pressure over the Indian Ocean drops. Simultaneously about 10,000 kilometers away in the South Pacific there is rise in pressure, when the rain is over, this reverses. This phenomena called southern oscillations is key indicator of the south-west monsoon. When the pressure over Indian Ocean is lower than normal it augurs well for the good monsoon.

Global Atmospheric Research Programme and Monex

The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the International council of Scientific Union (ICSU) organized a Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) in 1969. Under the aegis of this programme, a Global Weather Experiment was conducted for one full year beginning on 1 December 1978. it was one of the biggest ever international experiments, on a global scale, for observing the earth's atmosphere from land and ocean based data collection platforms, and by weather satellites, which now monitor the restless atmosphere, was launched after several years of intensive preparations and planning. Some idea of the dimensions of the experiment may be gleaned from the fact that in May of 1979 as many as fifty two research ships were deployed over the tropical oceans between 10oN and 10oS, While 104 aircraft missions were successfully completed over different parts of the Pacific, the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. Of considerable interest to India was a special programme of the Global Weather Experiment. This was the Monsoon Experiment (MONEX). Its purpose was to study the influence of monsoon winds on the general circulation of the atmosphere. In view of its economic impact, the Indian scientists were naturally interested in improving their capacity to predict the vagaries of this seasonal phenomenon, which occurs year after over the landmasses of Asia and parts of Africa.
 In view of its seasonal characteristics, the monsoon experiment (MONEX) was designed to have three components:-
1.Winter MONEX from 1 December 1978 to 5 March 1979 to cover the eastern Indian Ocean and the Pacific along with the land areas adjoining Malaysia and Indonesia.
2.Summer MONEX from 1 May to 31 August 1979 which covered the eastern coast of Africa, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal together with the adjacent landmass. It also covered the Indian Ocean in the belt extending from 10oN to 10oS.
3.A West African Monsoon Experiment (WAMEX) over western and central parts of Africa from 1 May to 31 August 1979
International MONEX Management Centers (IMMC) were set up in Kuala Lumper and in New Delhi to supervise the winter and summer components of the experiment. A large number of scientists from different countries came and worked at these Centers to plan and implement this international project.

Indian Climate : Environmental Hazards and Disasters

Change is the law of nature. It is continuous process that goes on uninterruptedly involving phenomena, big and small, material and non-material and make over physical and socio-cultural environment. It is a process present everywhere with variations in terms of magnitude, intensity and scale. Change can be gradual or slow process like the evolution of land forms and organism and it can be as sudden and swift as volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, earthquakes and lightening etc. Similarly, it may remain confined to a smaller area occurring within a few seconds like hailstorms, tornadoes and dust storm, and it can also have global dimensions such as global warming and depletion of the ozone layer. Besides, these changes have different meaning for different people. It depends upon the perspective one takes while trying to understand them. From the perspective of nature, changes are value-neutral. But from the human perspective, these are value-loaded. There are some changes that are desirable and good like the changes of season, ripening of fruits, while there are others like earthquake, floods and wars that are considered bad and undesirable.
 Classification of Natural Disasters
 Broadly natural disasters can be classified under the following four categories:

•Tropical cyclone
•Frost, Heat, wave
•Cold Wave
•Volcanic eruptions
•Soil Erosion
•Tidal Waves Ocean
 •Insect Infection
•Viral diseases like bird flu, dengue, AIDS etc

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