Showing posts with label Indian History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indian History. Show all posts

25 June 2012

History of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

State Profile
Rajasthan is a vibrant, exotic state where tradition and royal glory meet in a riot of colors against the vast backdrop of sand and desert. It has an unusual diversity in its entire forms- people, customs, culture, costumes, music, manners, dialects, cuisine and physiography. The land is endowed with invincible forts, magnificent palace havelis, rich culture and heritage, beauty and natural resources. It is a land rich in music, Dance, Art & Craft and Adventure, a land that never ceases to intrigue & enchant.There is a haunting air of romance, about the state, which is palpable in its every nook and corner. This abode of kings is one of the most exotic locales for tourist world over. The state has not only survived in all its ethnicity but owes its charisma and color to its enduring traditional way of life.
It is one of the 28 states that, along with seven union territories, form the republic of India. So rich is the history of the land that every roadside village has its own tales of valour and sacrifice, the winds sing them and the sands shift to spread them. Rajasthan is Spicy, but then, what is life after all without little bit of spice, Rajasthan provides abundant scope to explore it.
The panoramic outlook of the state is simply mesmerizing, with lofty hills of Aravali’s – one of the oldest mountain ranges of the world and the golden sand dunes of the Great Indian Desert – the only desert of the sub-continent. No other region in the country is a conglomeration of so many paradoxes. It is a land of superlatives, everything over here is breathtakingly beautiful, impressive and fascinating! The state is well connected with other parts of the country and can be easily approached from Delhi and Bombay. Fast trains, direct bus and air connections make travel easy and comfortable.
A visit to this wonderland will leave a lasting spell on your mind. In fact, one visit is not enough to capture the real essence of this magical land. You will, we assure you, keep coming back for more.
Quick History of Rajasthan
Ancient Period, upto 1200 AD
Rajput clans emerged and held their sway over different parts of Rajasthan from about 700 AD. Before that, Rajasthan was a part of several republics. It was a part of the Mauryan Empire. Other major republics that dominated this region include the Malavas, Arjunyas, Yaudhyas, Kushans, Saka Satraps, Guptas and Hunas.
The Rajput clans ascendancy in Indian history was during the period from the eighth to the twelfth century AD. The Pratihars ruled Rajasthan and most of northern India during 750-1000 AD. Between 1000-1200 AD, Rajasthan witnessed the struggle for supremacy between Chalukyas, Parmars and Chauhans.
Medieval Period, 1201 – 1707
Around 1200 AD a part of Rajasthan came under Muslim rulers. The principal centers of their powers were Nagaur and Ajmer. Ranthanbhor was also under their suzerainty. At the beginning of the 13th century AD, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar.
Modern Period, 1707 – 1947
Rajasthan had never been united politically until its domination by Mughal Emperor – Akbar. Akbar created a unified province of Rajasthan. Mughal power started to decline after 1707. The political disintegration of Rajasthan was caused by the dismemberment of the Mughal Empire. The Marathas penetrated Rajasthan upon the decline of the Mughal Empire. In 1755 they occupied Ajmer. The beginning of the 19th Century was marked by the onslaught of the Pindaris.
In 1817-18 the British Government concluded treaties of alliance with almost all the states of Rajputana. Thus began the British rule over Rajasthan, then called Rajputana.
Post Independence
The erstwhile Rajputana comprised 19 princely states and two chiefships of Lava and Kushalgarh and a British administered territory of Ajmer-Merwara. Rajasthan State was heterogeneous conglomeration of separate political entities with different administrative systems prevailing in different places. The present State of Rajasthan was formed after a long process of integration which began on March 17, 1948 and ended on November 1, 1956. Before integration it was called Rajputana; after integration it came to be known as Rajasthan. At present there are 33 districts (including the new district of Pratapgarh) in the State.
District Information
All Districts of Rajasthan


Places to Visit
Sisodia Rani Garden has tiered multilevel gardens with fountains, water channel and painted pavilions and suites of living rooms. Amongst others, Vidhyadhar-ka-Bagh is the best preserved one, with shady trees, flowing water, an open pavilion. It was built by the planner of the city,Vidhyadhar.
Parks and Sancturies

Rajasthan is a haven for a wide spectrum of wildlife. The topography of Rajasthan ranges from the barren desert, scrub-thorn arid forests,rocks and ravines to wetlands and lush, green forests. And each of these areas houses a large variety of animal and bird life. Some of them rare while some endangered.
Rajasthan is the home of the tigers, black bucks,chinkara, the rare desert fox,the endangered caracal, the great Indian bustard,gavial, monitor lizard,wild boars,porcupine. Migratory birds like the common crane, ducks,coots, pelicans and the rare Siberian cranes,imperial sandgrouse, falcons, buzzards flocks to this state during the winter months. Typical areas representing each of the ecosystems have been earmarked as special areas wildlife. Rajasthan boasts of two National Parks,over a dozen Sanctuaries and two Closed Areas. Most of these areas are open to visitors round the year but are closed briefly during the monsoon.
Adventure Tourism

The joy of being aloft in the wind and the thrill of defying the elements is what parasailing and ballooning are all about. Unlike other aerosports, in these, once off the ground, the sportsman is on his own. Since the skies are an element foreign to us, it would be judicious to take all precautions before indulging in the joy afforded by the sports. Responsibility for the safety for the sportsman depends to a large extent on the team helping out in this sport. Ballooning on other hand,permits the balloonist to soar high in the sky and drift over the picturesque terrain.
Heritage Hotels

In a class by themselves, these heritage hotels extend their own unique services to the tourist. Dressed almost always in traditional turbans and dhotis,the old family retainers cater to the same kind of care and hospitality to the tourists as they do to their personal guests.In most of these havelies,the host himself is always around to ensure that the guest is comfortable and well looked after. What these palaces lack by way of five-star facilities they more than make up by the personalized service that they extend. The Department of Tourism takes active interest in promoting these heritage hotels. Some are listed below. A more detailed list is available with the Department of Tourism,Government of Rajasthan.
Distance Chart

To find out : Distance between two cities, trace down the vertical column of one city to its intersection with the column of the other city.
The total road mileage in Rajasthan is 2521 kms. of national highway and around 54,000 kms. of state roads and rural link roads. Roads provide most convenient modes of transport between Delhi and various locations in eastern Rajasthan, most of which are 1-5 hours of comfortable road journey from Delhi.

Art & Culture

Paintings of Rajasthan

Rajasthan’s role in the development of Indian art has been very important. The decoration of dwellings and other household objects was but one aspect of the creative genius of the Rajasthani – the world of miniature paintings is perhaps the most fascinating and the distinctive styles that have existed here are renowned the world over. From the 16th century onwards there flourished different schools of paintings like the Mewar school, the Bundi-Kota kalam, the Jaipur, Bikaner, Kishengarh and Marwar schools.
Jewellery & Gems

Rajasthan, men and women traditionally wore necklaces, armlets, anklets, earrings and rings. With the advent of the Mughal Empire, Rajasthan became a major centre for production of the finest kind of jewellery. It was a true blend of the Mughal with the Rajasthani craftsmanship. The Mughals brought sophisticated design & technical know-how of the Persians with them.
Art Galleries & Museums

RAJASTHAN - the land of massive forts, sprawling palaces and intricately carved temples ofcolourful tribes and brave warriors, of unrivalledform of arts and crafts, unique dance and music traditions, is changing at rapid pace. Its vast network of Museums in large and small towns, archaeological sites and the recently opened museums and art galleries in the palaces of erstwhile rulers of old states help to preserve this great heritage for posterity.
Folk Dance and Music

There is a great tradition of popular poetry, which is written under the rival banners of Turru and Kalangi. This is a sung in groups in Jikri, Kanhaiyya or Geet(of the Meenas), Hele-ke-Khyal and Bam Rasiya of Eastern Rajasthan. Group singing of classical bandishes, called the Dangal or taalbandi is also unique to this region. Bhopas are singing priests of various deities or warrior saints.The Bhopas of Mataji wear costumes and play the Mashak.
Fairs & Festivals

The Rajasthani’s love for colour and joyous celebrations is proved by the elaborate rituals and the gay abandon with which he surrenders himself to the numerous fairs and festivals of the region. In addition to the festivals celebrated by the Hindus,Muslims and others,there are also the traditional fairs.

People of Rajasthan


In olden days, the profession of the people decided their caste. This system has now been broken. Today, individuals have the freedom to opt for any profession irrespective of caste. The profession based caste system has now been transformed into birth-based caste system. People of various castes and sub-castes reside in Rajasthan.
The Rajputs, who were the rulers of most of the erstwhile princely states of Rajasthan, form a major group of residents of Rajasthan. Rajputs are generally stoutly built people of good height. The Rajputs generally worshipped the Sun, Shiva, and Vishnu. Vedic religion is still followed by the Rajputs. All the auspicious and inauspicious activities are done in accordance to the Vedic traditions.
The other castes found in Rajasthan are as follows:
Brahmins : Their main occupation was worshipping and performance of religious rites.
Vaishya : These people generally took up business as their source of livelihood. These days they are settled in every nook and corner of the country.
There is a large group of agricultural castes to be found in Rajasthan. These people depend on Agriculture for thier livelihood. Some of these castes are Jat, Gurjar, Mali, Kalvi etc.
Irrespective of the birth-based caste system, each individual is free to follow the profession / occupation as per choice, in modern Rajasthan.
Many tribes are also found in different parts of Rajasthan. These tribes have their own social systems and customs. Some of the commonly known tribs are Meena, Bhil, Garasia, Kanjar.

The religion and costumes of the tribes vary. They each have their own religion, costumes and profession. The religion followed by Rajasthanis, in general, is the Hindu religion. Various other religions are also prevalent.
Some of these religions are:
Jain Religion: the Jains follow the teachings of Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara. Mahavira stressed on the practice Non-violence.
Sikh Religion :Over time,there has been a considarable increase in the number of followers of Sikh religion. The sikhs belive in formless God and worship their holy book ‘Guru Granth Sahib’.
Some other major religions that are followed are Buddishm, Islam, Chirstianity, Parsi religion.

The study of the people of Rajasthan is incomplete without the knowledge of costumes and ornaments. The costumes of the present have the reflections of the costumes of the past. .
Both males and females dress in the customary dresses fully influenced by climate, economy, status and the profession, they are engaged. The traditional dresses being Potia, Dhoti, Banda, Angrakhi, Bugatari, Pachewara, Khol, Dhabla, amongst Hindus; and Tilak, Burga, Achkan amongst Muslims which fast changing now with Bushirt, Salwar and Skirts, Saris and Pants accordingly. Turbans the head dress of Rajasthan is a differential pattern of each geographical region designed to its terrain and climatic influence. Clothes express ones personality and tell people which village and caste they belong.
All  over  Rajasthan   the bandhni, tie-dye sari and turban reign supreme.
The common dress of the women constitutes (i) Sari or Odhani, (ii) Kanchli or Kunchuki or Choli (iii) Ghaghra or Ghaghri or Lahanga Besides, the women of high status and ranks wear dupatta and patka. The use of chappals or sandals or jutees is also common but   ladies    of high families use coloured sandals studded with gold threads and stars.Thus, it is concluded that the costumes of women are very colourful and fascinating.

He use of ornaments dates back to the prehistoric times with  the passage of time new designs and varieties replace the old ones but still there  are ornaments which were used in the past and are still used in the present.
Both men and women wear ornaments but with the passage of time, men are giving up their use. The ornaments of gold and silver are more prevalent in Rajasthan. There are certain ornaments which are used by men.
In daily use the ladies wear normal ornaments of neck, hand, nose and ear but on special occasions and social functions women wear all the ornaments of to look beautiful and attractive.For its exquisite designs and delicacy of art Rajasthan jewelry is a rage not only for ladies in India but also for women of foreign countires.

Important Dynasties of India


Maurya Dynasty (300 B.C.–184 B.C.)
Chandragupta Maurya (324–300 B.C.)—He founded the Maurya Empire in India with the help of Kautilya. He was a military genius and an eminent statesman.
Ashoka the great (273–236 B.C.)—Coronation in 269 B.C. He was the son of Bindusara. He conquered; Kalinga in 261 B.C. This was killed the soldier in him and he embraced Buddhism.
Kushan Dynasty (40–176 A.D.)
Kanishka (78–101 or 102 A.D.)—He is known as a great empire builder. Like Ashoka he patronized Buddhism. He patronized the Gandhara School of Art. The famous Indian physician Charak and Bhuddhist lawyer Nagarjuna lived during his reign. Ashwaghosh a Buddhist monk also lived in his time.
Gupta Dynasty (320–550 A.D.)
The great rulers in this dynasty are : Chandra Gupta I. (2) Samudra Gupta, (330 –375 A.D.). Also known as Napoleon of India, (3) Chandra Gupta II. (375–413 A.D.) (Vikramaditya), and (4) Skanda Gupta (455–477 A.D.). The Gupta period is described as the golden period in the history of ancient India. Among the great personalities of the period mention may be made of Kalidas. The famous dramatist, Arya Bhatta, the famous astronomer and mathematician. Varahamihir and Brahmagupta also belonged to this age.
Vardhana or Pushyabhuti Dynasty (560–647 A.D.)
The greatest king of this dynasty was Harsha Varadhan (606–647 A.D.). He was a great patron of art and literature. He himself was a man of letters having written two great books ‘Naga Nandin’ and ‘Ratnavali’. He was the last great Hindu ruler of India. Huen Tsang a Chinnese pilgrim, visited India during his reign.
Ghazni Dynasty (962–1116 A.D.)
Mahmud Ghazni (997–1030)—He was a great conqueror. He invaded India 17 times. His invasions weakened the Indian rulers and paved the way for Muslim rule in India. The famous Persian poet Firdausi, the writer of ‘Shahnama’ lived in his court.
Ghori (1186–1206 A.D.)
Mohammed Ghori (1186–1206)—He was defeated by Prithviraj, the ruler of Ajmer and Delhi at the first Battle of Tarain. He however, defeated Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192. This marked the beginning of permanent Muslim rule in India.
Slave Dynasty (1206–1290 A.D.)
Qutubuddin Aibak (1206–1210 A.D.)—He was the founder of the Slave Dynasty. He commenced the building of the Qutub Minar which was later completed by Altamash (1211–1236) who was succeeded by Razia Begum, (1236–1239 A.D.) his daughter.
Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320 A.D.)
Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296–1316 A.D.)—He was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty. He was a great conqueror and his empire extended to the far south. He was famous for control of
Tughlaq Dynasty (1320–1414 A.D.)
Mohammed Tughlaq (1325–1351 A.D.)—He was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty. He was known for his learning and also for mixture of sagacity and madness. His transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad has been described by historians as an act of madness.
Lodhi Dynasty (1451–1526 A.D.)
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517–1526 A.D.)—He made some mark in extending his dominions. He was a cruel ruler. He was defeated by Babur in 1526 at the First Battle of Panipat, and the foundations of Mughal rule in India were laid.
Mughal Rulers (1526–1857)
Babur (1526–1530 A.D.) founded the Mughal rule in India in 1526 by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi—He however, did not live long was and succeeded by his son Humayun (1530–1540 and 1555– 1556 A.D.) in 1530. Akbar (1556–1605 A.D.) was the most capable and distinguished ruler of the Mughal dynasty. His son Jahangir (1605–1627 A.D.) followed in his foot steps to some extent. Jahangir was succeeded by Shahjahan (1627–1659 A.D.) whose reign is described as the golden period in Mughal history. His son Aurangzeb (1659–1707 A.D.) was the last great Mughal emperor. But with him began the downfall of the Mughal empire on account of his policy of intolerance which alienated the Hindus especially the Rajputs.
Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire
(1) The Empire had become too unwieldy to be managed.
(2) Aurangzeb’s policy of religious intolerance antagonized the Hindus.
(3) The successors of Aurangzeb were not competent rulers.
(4) The rivalry, intrigues and corruption led to administrative chaos.
(5) Attacks of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali reduced it to a small size.
(6) It had not struck deep roots in the Indian soil.
Suri Dynasty (1540–1555 A.D.)
Sher Shah Suri (1540–1545 A.D.)—Rule provides an interragnum between two phases of Mughal rule in India. Sher Shah defeated Humayun and forced him into exile. He carried out notable reforms in administration.
The Marahattas (1649–1818 A.D.)—The Marahatta power rose in the latter half of the 17th century. The Marahattas organised their power under the leadership of Shivaji (1627-80). He was an able ruler and commander. During the Peshwa period, the Marahatta power spread through the major part of India. But at a time when the Marahatta power was at its zenith and promised to establish its sway over the whole of India, the forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali badly defeated the Peshwa forces in 1761 at the Battle of Panipat. Though the Marahattas were defeated at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali, neither of the two parties could maintain its sovereignty over India. On the contrary this battle made the field clear for the establishment of British East India Company’s rule in India.
The Peshwas (1708–1818)—After the death of Shivaji, Peshwas continued their struggle. They did succeed to a great extent in their struggle. A major portion of Indian peninsula came under their control at the outset of British hold. But due to internal conflict and subsequent weakening of power they succumbed to British power which had been gaining momentum.
Important Dynasties in the South
Chalukyas— Pulkeshin I was the founder of this dynasty. He made Kanchi or Modern Badami his capital. His grandson Pulkeshin II (609–642) was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty. He measured swords with king Harsha and defeated him on the bank of the Narmada.
Cholas—Parantoka I was the founder of this dynasty in 947. Chola rule reached its high water mark of glory under Raja Rajadeva, the Great and his son Rajendra Choladeva I. The Cholas established their supremacy even outside India.
Bahmani Muslim Kingdom (1346–1526 A.D.)—The Muslim Kingdom was established in the Deccan during the reign of Mohammed Tughlaq and founded in 1347 by a brave soldier, named Zafar Khan. The most illustrious person of this kingdom was Mahmud Gawan, a persian who was a minister for a long time. He was killed and after that the kingdom was split into five independent states : (1) Bedar, (2) Berar, (3) Ahmednagar, (4) Bijapur, (5) Golkunda.
Vijayanagar Empire (1336–1565 A.D.)—Harihar and Bukka were the founders of this dynasty in 1336. The greatest rulers of this dynasty were Deva Raya II and Krishna Deva Raya. The glory of Vijayanagar empire was smashed at the Battle of Talikota in 1565 when the Deccan Sultanates fought and defeated Ramraja and killed him.


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● Muazzam occupied the Mughal throne as Bahadur Shah after his success in the war of succession.
● Muazzam, the son of Aurangzeb was called as the ‘Shah Bekhabar’.
● The Mughal King Farrukh Siyar gratned concession to the English men to trade in Bengal, Gujarat and Hyderabad.
● In 1759 Ali Mohar, the son of Alamgir sat upon the Mughal throne as Shah Alam II.
● After the death of Maratha ruler Shahu, the real power of the State came in the hands of Peshwas.
● Nawab Murshid Quli Khan of Bengal transferred his capital to Murshidabad from Dacca.
● Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal transferred his capital to Moongher from Murshidabad.
● In the middle of the 18th century, the nominal ruler of Mysore was Chika Krishnaraj. The real power of the State lied with the two brothers—Nand Raj and Dev Raj.
● In 1761 Hyder Ali captured Nandraj and became the master of Mysore.
● In the first Anglo-Mysore war, Hyder Ali badly defeated the English army.
● In 1781 Hyder Ali conqurered Arcot but in 1781 at Porn Novo Sir Eyerkoot defeated him.
● Ali Muhammad Khan established the State of Rohilkhand.
● The early capital of Rohilkhand was ‘Awala’ which later shifted to Rampur.
● Guru Har Gobind Singh constructed the Akaal Takht at Amritsar.
● Guru Gobind Singh converted the Sikhs into a warring and military group.
● In 1721, the two sects of Sikhism ‘Bandai’ and ‘Tatkhalsa’ merged in one sect ‘Khalsa’. This sect became a headache for the Mughals.
● The Sikhs were organized in 12 unions or misls which grew in political significance. Later Ranjeet Singh conquered these misls and organized them into Punjab State.
● The ruler of the Afghanistan conferred the title of Raja upon Ranjeet Singh and appointed him the Subedar of Lahore.
● The treaty of Amritsar was signed between the English and Ranjeet Singh in 1809. As a result the English checked the expansion of Ranjeet Singh towards the region of Sutluj.
● According to the treaty of Amritsar, the English accepted Ranjeet Singh as an independent ruler.
● During first Anglo-Sikh war, the Governor-General of India was Lord Hardinge.
● Punjab was ruled by Maharaja Dalip Singh when the Lahore Treaty was signed in 1846 between the Sikhs and the English after the defeat of Sikhs in the first Anglo Sikh war.
● During Sirajudaulla’s time, the English settlement at Calcutta became a resort for the enemies of Nawab and the traitors.
● On 4th June, 1756 Sirajudaulla invaded and captured the Qasim Bazar factory of English near Murshidabad.
● The Black hole tragedy as it is known in history, came to light through the letter of Holvell. Some of the historians consider it imaginery.
● In the contemporary historical works like Sher-a-Mutkherin and Royas-us-Salatin, there is no reference to the Black hole tragedy.
● On 9th February, 1757, the Ali Nagar Treaty was signed between the English and the Nawab.
● After the war of Plassey, when Sirajudaulla was running away from Murshidabad towards Patna he was captured and killed.
● On 28 June, 1757, the English declared Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal.
● After victory in Plassey war, the English Company obtained concessions to trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
● On 25 November, 1759, the Bedara war was fought between the English and the Dutch and the Dutch were defeated. The victory helped the English in consolidating their hold on Bengal.
● Mir Qasim planned friendship with Vansittart to become the Nawab of Bengal.
● Mir Qasim gave to East India Company, the districts of Vardhman, Midnapur and Chittgaon for the expenditure of the English army.
● In 1764 the joint army of Mir Qasim, Shujauddaulla and Shah Alam fought with the English—the war of Buxar, the English were victorious in this war.
● After the Buxar War, the Allahabad treaty was signed between English and the Mughal King Shah Alam in 1765 AD.
● According to Allahabad Treaty, the districts of Kara and Allahabad were taken away from the Nawab of Oudh and given to Mughal King. The East India Company agreed to pay to the king a pension of Rs. 26 lacs. In lieu the English got Diwani rights in Bengal.
● After the death of Mir Jafar, his son Nizamuddaula was enthroned as Nawab of Bengal.
● K. M. Panikkar holds that from 1765 to 1772, the rule of East India Company in Bengal was the ‘rule of dacoits’.
● During Warren Hastings period, the Treasury was transferred by the East India Company to Calcutta from Murshidabad and Calcutta was made the capital.
● During the Governorship of Warren Hastings, in every district of subjugated India one Civil and one Criminal Court was opened.
● The cases upto to Rs. 500 were referred to the Civil Court and alone it, the appeal could be made to the Sadar Diwani Adalat.
● The District Criminal Court was put in charge of an Indian Officer.
● The Regulating Act of 1773 established a Supreme Court at Calcutta.
● The Permanent settlement introduced by Cornwallis brought changes in the land system. Most of the land came in the hands of commercial and rich classes of Calcutta.
● The Permanent settlement ensured the income of the Government. Besides the cooperation of the new Zamindars was obtained.
● In the Mahalwari system, land revenues was fixed either through the local Zamindars or their hereditary tax collectors or the Zamindars of the Mahal. Mahal was the collection of villages. The Mahalwari system was known in Punjab as the village system.
● The Raiyyatwari system was introduced during early 19th century in some regions of Madras and Bombay. The Govt. directly obtained a fixed amount from the peasants.
● In the Raiyyatwari system, the revenue rate was fixed 45% to 50% of the total produce separately.
● The Raiyyatwari system had many defects which the Govt. official accepted at the time of a parliamentary inspection for the renewal of the Company’s Charter.
● In the Fifth and Sixth decades of 19 century, the English invested in large amount to control Indian economy.
● The English invested their capital on roads and communications, Railway, Post and Telegraph, Banks and tea gardens.
● In 1830 the Ahoms again rebelled against the English. This time, the English Company adopted a peaceful policy and granted north Assam and some other region to King Purandar Singh.
● Raja Teerath Singh of Nanakkalo rebelled against the English with the help of Garo, Khampati and Sinhopo tribes. Soon it took the shape of a mass-movement. In 1833, the English could crust it with superior military force.
● In 1825, the Assam Rifles rebelled against the English.
● In 1838, the Indian troops stationed at Sholapur rebelled due to non-payment of the full allowances.
● In 1850 the Gobind Garh regiment rebelled.
● On 1 January, 1857, the use of British made Enfield Rifles was started in India. In the cartridges of this Rifle, the fat of cows and pigs were used.
● In March 1857, the soldiers of Bairakpur Cantt refused to use the fat cartridges.
● On 2 May, 1857, the Oudh Regiment of Lucknow too refused to use these cartridges. As a result, the Oudh regiment was disbanded.
● To the soldiers of Meerut who had refused to use the fat cartridges, an English military officer—Carr Michael Smith issued the jail punishment of 5 years.
● On 10 May, 1857, a section of the infantry and cavalry of Merrut rebelled at about 5 P.M.
● The rebels marched to Delhi, captured the city and declared Bahadurshah the emperor of India. Bahadurshah assumed the leadership of revolt in Delhi.
● During this rebellion, Nana Saheb established his suzeranity over Kanpur and declared himself the Peshwa.
● In Bundelkhand Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi assumed the leadership of the revolt.
● In Bihar, the zamindar of Jagdishpur, named Kunwar Singh led the revolt.
● On 28 May, 1857, the soldiers of Nasirabad Cantt in Rajasthan, rebelled.
● Kota and Adva were the main centres of revolt in Rajasthan.
● The Central India, Tantya Tope led the revolt.
● In U.P. the importnat centres of revolution were Jhansi, Kanpur, Bareilly, Meerut, Lucknow, Aligarh, Mathura and Agra.
● The Bareilly rebellion was led by Batakhs Khan.
● The Commissioner of Oudh, Henry Laurrence died of a blast on 4th July, 1857.
● While suppressing the revolt, the English officer Neil buried the dead Brahmans and burnt the dead Muslims.
● In March 1858, under the leadership of Kunwar Singh, the rebels captured Azamgarh.
● While marching towards Benaras from Azamgarh, there was an encounter between Kunwar Singh and the English officer Lord Mark in which Lord Mark had to run away to save his life.
● Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur was the only leader to have died under the banner of freedom.
● On 14 December, 1857, the English army blasted Kashmiri Gate of Delhi.
● In November 1857 the rebels defeated the English General Windaham near Kanpur.
● Vinayak Damodar Saverker was the first to name the rebellion of 1857 as the first war of Indian independence.
● According to Sir Seeley, the rebellion of 1857 was fully a national revolt conducted by selfish soldiers.
● Sir John Lawrence, P. E. Roberts and V. A. Smith have called it a Sepoy Mutiny.
● According to V. A. Smith, the rebellion of 1857 was purely a sepoy mutiny which fully reflected the indiscipline of Indian soldiers and the foolishness of English military officers.
● According to Sir James Outtram, the revolt of 1857 was the result of a conspiracy of the Muslims who desired to fulfill their self-interest on the strength of the Hindus.
● Ashok Mehta in his book, ‘The Great Revolt’, has attempted to prove that it was a national revolt.
● Pattabhi Sita Ramaiyya takes it to be the first war of Indian independence.
● After crushing the revolt of 1857, they constituted an India Council and abolished the Board of Directors. There were 15 members in the India Council and a Secretary of State for India.
● After the revolt, Lord Canning announced the Declaration of the Queen at a Durbar held at Allahabad. He called it, ‘the Magna Carta of Indian people’.
● In the Declaration of the Queen, the policy of expansion of the political limits came to an end.
● The rebels responsible for the murder of Englishmen were punished. All others were pardoned.
● The objective of Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramkirshna Mission and the Theosophical society etc. was to herald a renaissance in India.
● Brahmo Samaj was founded in Calcutta by Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1828.
● Raja Ram Mohan Roy always advocated the appointment of Indians on high govt. posts. He played a major role in the abolition of Sati system.
● After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1833, Devendara Nath Tagore assumed the leadership of the Brahmo Samaj.
● Aadi Brahmo Samaj was established by Devendra Nath Thakur.
● Bhartiya Brahmo Samaj was founded by Keshav Chandra Sen.
● The principles of Brahmo Samaj helped immensely in the birth and Spread Indian nationalism.
● Raja Ram Mohan Roy established Vedant College, English School and Hindu College at Calcutta.
● Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the advocate of English Education and he thought English to be the vehicle of progress.
● It was due to the effort of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, that the restriction upon the newspapers were lifted.
● In 1819, at Maharashtra, Prarthna Sabha was founded. It came to an end due to its limited scope.
● In 1867 Atma Ram Pandurang established Prarthna Samaj. M. G. Ranade, R. G. Bhandarkar and Narayan Chandrawarkar were the prominent members of this Samaj.
● Dayanand Saraswati left his house at the age of 21. As a Brahmachari Sadhu, he travelled to different places in India.
● Dayanand Saraswati started the propagation of his religion from Agra.
● In 1874, he wrote his famous book Satyarth Prakash.
● On 10 April, 1875 he founded Arya Samaj at Bombay.
● Totapuri, a Vedantic sadhu taught Vedant Sadhna to Dayananda.
● Ramkrishna Paramhans was born in 1836 in a poor Brahman family of Hoogly district of Bengal.
● Swami Vivekanand was the most devoted disciple of Swami Ramkrishna Paramhans.
● Ramkrishna Pramhans did not establish any Ashram or sect.
● In 1893 in the All Religion Conference at Chicago Vivekanand impressed everyone, and started a Vedant Samaj there.
● In 1896 Vivekanand established Ramkrishna Mission.
● In the last years of the third decade of the 19th century, the young Bengal movement was led by an Englishman named Henry William Derozio.
● On 7 September, 1875 in New York, U.S.A. Madame H.P. Blatavesky (Russian) and Col. H. S. Alcott (American) founded the Theosophical Society.
● Mrs. Annie Besant, an Irish lady was a very active member of Theosophical Society in India.
● Due to the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, in 1856, the Widow Remarriage Act was legislated.
● The slogan of ‘Inkalab Zindabad’ was given by Mohammad Iqbal.
● Sir Saiyyad Ahmad Khan founded the Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1877 which later became known as Aligarh Muslim University.
● Haji Shariatullah was the initiator of Faryaz movement.
● In Maharashtra the Bharat Sewak Samaj was started by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
● In 1922 Amrit Lal Viththal Das established the Bheel Sewa Mandal.
● Jyoti Ba Phule was the champion of widowremarriage in Maharashtra.
● In 1911 Narayan Maltar Joshi organised the Social Service League, a society to solve the social problems. He was assisted by some educated Indians.
● Avanindra Nath Thakur founded the society known as—The Indian Society of Oriental Art.
● In the 19th century, the famous Bengali author Bankim Chandra Chatterjee composed the song— Vande Matram.
● In 1875, Sisir Kumar Ghose founded the India League.
● The Indian Association founded by Surendra Nath Banerjee was replaced by the Indian League in 1876.
● The credit for founding the Indian National Congress in 1885 goes to an English officer, Allen Octavian Hume.
● The first Conference of the Indian National Congress was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay under the chairmanship of W. C. Banerjee.
● Bal Gangadhar Tilak started Ganesh Mahotsav in 1893 and Shivaji Samaroh in 1895.
● Pandit Jugal Kishore published the first newspaper of India—Udant Martand. It was a paper which gave top priority to Indian interests.
● During Lord Curzon’s time in 1905, Bengal was divided.
● In 1911, in Lord Hardinge’s time, the partition of Bengal was cancelled.
● Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajeet Singh were exiled to Burma in 1907.
● In 1911 the capital of India was shifted to Delhi from Calcutta.
● On Nov. 1913, the Ghadar Party was founded at Sanfransisco city of America by the great revolutionary of Punjab named Lala Hardayal.
● Kashi Ram and Hardayal were the active members of the Ghadar Party.
● In 1906, Agha Khan founded the All India Muslim League.
● In 1916, a pact was signed between Muslim League and Congress which is known in history as the Lucknow Pact.
● In 1916 Bal Gangadhar Tilak established the Home Rule League of India.
● After Lucknow Pact, Congress and League presented the plan of political reforms based on separate electoral regions. This pact led to an increase in communalism.
● In 1914 Annie Besant brought out a newspaper in English named ‘New India’.
● Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad.
● On 30 March, 1919, Satyagraha Day was observed in whole of India. The Satyagraha was peaceful at all places except Punjab and Delhi.
● Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin, the leaders of the Punjab Satyagraha were imprisoned. In protest, a meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar . The people who assembled here were gunned down. This is known as ‘Jalhianwalla bagh Massacre’ of April 1919.
● After the world war I, the Indian Muslims were excited due to the treatment meted out to Caliph by the British in Turkey. In 1919 they started the Khilafat movement under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali.
● The Congress joined the Muslims in Khilafat movement. On 31 August, 1919, the Khilafat Day was observed.
● Mahatma Gandhi launched the Non-cooperation Mass Movement in 1920-21. But violence broke out at Chauri Chaura then in Gorakhpur district which saddened Gandhiji. In February 1922 he announced the closure of the movement.
● In March 1922 Motilal Nehru and Deshbandhu Chitranjan Das established the Swaraj Party.
● In the elections of 1923 the Swaraj Party scored 40 seats out of 148.
● In 1927 the Bardoli Satyagraha was conducted by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.
● In 1928 under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon a Commission came to India to inspect the administrative work. The Indians boycotted it as no Indian was a member of the Commission. In March 1928 the Commission went back.
● In the 1929 Lahore Congress session held under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru, the meaning of Swaraj was declared as total independence.
● In 1930 Gandhiji broke the Salt laws by his Dandi March and he started the Civil Disobedience movement.
● In 1930, the Congress boycotted the first Round Table Conference.
● In 1931, after Gandhi-Irwin pact Gandhiji went to attend the second Round Table Conference along with the members of Muslim League.
● In the third Round table conference in 1932, Congress did not send any representative. Only 46 members went to participate under different categories.
● The meeting of the Executive of Congress held on 1 January, 1932 decided to again start the Civil Disobedience Movement due to the completely negative attitude of the Government.
● The British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald declared the communal award on 16 August, 1932.
● On 25 September, 1932, the Poona Pact was signed. Common agreement was made on two conditions for preparing the electoral regions. The representative of the Depressed classes was B.R. Ambedkar.
● In 1932 Gandhiji founded the Harijan Sewak Sangh for the uplift of the Harijans.
● On 8 May, 1933 Gandhiji declared the programme of 21 days fast for his self-purification.
● Gandhiji began ‘Individual Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience on 1 August, 1933.
● The Government of India Act of 1935 had 312 articles and 19 enclosures.
● In 1935, the British provinces were 11 e.g., Madras, Bombay, Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Orissa, Central Provinces, Assam, North West Frontier Provinces, United Provinces and Sindh.
● The Government of India Act of 1935, the subjects were divided into three departments—Federal, Provincial and Concurrent.
● This Act divided the British provinces of India in two categories. 11 were the provinces under the Governor and 5 provinces were under Lieutenant Commissioners.
● The Govt. of India Act, 1935, proposed Federal system and Provincial autonomy. The plan of Federal system could not be implemented. The elections for the Provincial legislative Councils were held in the January-February of 1937.
● The Congress won majority in 5 provinces—Madras, United Provinces, Central Provinces, Bihar and Orissa in the general election of 1937.
● In Punjab, the Unionist Party and Muslim League jointly formed the Government. This Government worked without any obstruction till 1947.
● In Bengal the Krishak Praja Party and the Muslim League jointly formed the Government. Its Cabinet worked till 14 August, 1947. Sikandar Hayaat Khan was the head of this Government.
● The Congress Cabinets worked from 1937 to 1939.
● In 1934, the members of Congress Executive, Acharya Narendra Dev, Jai Prakash and Achyut Patvardhan organized the Congress Socialist Party.
● In the Haripura session of the Congress (1938), S. C. Bose was unanimously elected the President.
● Subhash Chandra Bose organized a National Planning Committee.
● In 1939 Bose was relected Congress President defeating Gandhi’s candidate P. Sitaramayya.
● In April 1939, Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the post of the President and started a militant party known as Forward Block.
● In 1939, Jawaharlal Nehru became the President of the Tribal Conference of Indian States.
● In 1933, a Muslim student named Choudhary Rahmat Ali studying in England proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State and called it Pakistan.
● On 24th March, 1940, in the Lahore Conference of the Muslim League, the Pakistan proposal was passed.
● Lord Linlithgo presented the August proposal before the Congress on 8 August, 1940 for getting cooperation during the war.
● The Individual Satyagraha was started from 17 October, 1940. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi. Gandhiji postponed it on 17 December, 1940.
● It was restarted on 5 January, 1941. During this period more than 20 thousand people were arrested.
● Cripps Mission visited India in 1942. It was onemember Commission and only Sir Strafford Cripps was the member.
● The Congress and the League, both rejected the Cripps Proposals.
● The Quit India movement resolution was passed on 14 July, 1942 in the Executive of the Congress Session held at Wardha. It was reaffirmed on 8 August, 1942.
● The interim government of free India was organized on 21 October, 1943 by Subhash Chandra Bose in Singapore.
● 21 Indian political leaders were invited to attend a Conference at Simla in June 1945. It ended in failure.
● In December 1945, the General Elections were held in India. The Congress received the majority in 6 provinces.
● On 18 February, 1946, the non Commissioned officers and Naval soldiers of the Royal Indian Navy who were called Rattings, began a militant revolt at Bombay.
● In order to remove the Constitutional crisis the British Government sent the Cabinet Mission to India.
● It came on 29 March, 1946 to New Delhi and it declared its proposals.
● Muslim League observed the Direct Action Day on 16 August 1946.
● The Interim Government of India was organized under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. The Cabinet took oath on 2nd September, 1946.
● The Constituent Assembly first met under the chairmanship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 6th December, 1946.
● Atlee declared on 20 February, 1947 that the English would leave India after transferring the power to responsible people before June 1948.
● The Mountbatten Plan of 3 June, 1947 was mainly the Plan of partition. It was agreed upon by the Executive of the Indian National Congress on 14-15 June in a meeting at Delhi.
● In July 1947, the Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament.
● India became independent on 15 August, 1947.
● On 26 January, 1950, the state of Hyderabad merged in the Indian Federation.
● On 20 April 1954, the Panchsheel Pact was signed between India and China.
● On 20 October, 1962 China invaded upon India. Soon it occupied Assam Valley and Laddakh. On 21 November, 1962, China declared one sided ceasefire.



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● Made in the times of Bhoj, an idol of ‘Vakdevi’ is at present preserved in the British Museum.
● The Jain temples of Dilwara were constructed during the period of Parmars.
● In Udaipur Prashasti, Munj is entitled ‘Kavi Vrish’ due to his literary attainments.
● Qutubuddin was purchased as a slave in his childhood by Qazi Fakruddin Abdul Aziz Koofi.
● Qutubuddin did not issue coins or got ‘Khutba’ read in his name after accession to Delhi throne.
● Qutubuddin Aibak was buried at Lahore after his death.
● Iltutmish established the Shamsi dynasty.
● Iltutmish organized the group of his 40 slaves which is famous in history as Turkan-i-Chahalgami.
● Yalduz and Nasiruddin Qubacha were prominent rivals of Iltutmish.
● Iltutmish organized the ‘Iqta army’.
● Iltutmish issued the coins—‘Taka’ of silver and ‘Jeetal’ of copper.
● Iltutmish was the first Sultan who issued pure Arabic coins.
● On 18th February, 1229, the representatives of the Caliph of Baghdad came to Delhi and they gave the Investiture of the Caliph to Iltutmish. The Caliph thus accepted him as the Sultan of Delhi. Now Delhi became a free state legitimately.
● According to Barni, Balban organized his Court on the Iranian pattern.
● Balban started the system of ‘Sijda’ and ‘Paibos’ during his reign.
● Balban’s theory of kingship was based upon—Power, Prestige and Justice. His main objective was to maintain his control upon the administrative officials.
● The Mongol leader Changez Khan was known as the ‘Curse of God’.
● The coronation of Jalaluddin Feroz Shah was done in 1290 at the Kilokhari Apurna Palace built by Kaikubad.
● At the time of his accession on the Delhi Sultanate, Alauddin Khalji assumed the title of Abul Mujaffar Sultan Alauddinia and Deen Mohammad Shah Khalji.
● Jalaluddin Feroz Shah Khalji granted to Alauddin Khalji, the post of Amir-i-Tujuk.
● During Alauddin’s time approximately 75 to 80 per cent of the peasant’s produce was charged as tax.
● The main tasks of Diwan-i-Ariz were to recruit the soldiers, to disburse the salary, to well equip the army, to make arrangements for inspection and to proceed with the Commander-in-Chief in times of war.
● The main tasks of the Diwan-i-Insha was to draft royal orders and letters and to maintain the govt. records. He also conducted correspondence with the local officers.
● Alauddin Khalji introduced market reforms and fixed the prices of various items and goods.
● Munhiyan or detectives were appointed to keep a watch over the market and report the Sultan of the same.
● Barid-i-Mandi was an employee who informed the Sultan of the quality of the material sold in the market.
● ‘Khams’ was the war booty. The 4/5 of the loot was submitted to the royal treasury. Only 1/5 was distributed among the soldiers.
● Alauddin Khalji established a new department Diwan-i-Mustakharaj in order to check the corruption of Revenue department and to maintain control on the concerned officers.
● Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah rejected the rigid rules of Alauddin Khalji and pursued the policy of forgive and forget.
● Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Ghazi was a Qaruna turk.
● Mohammad Tughlaq has been called, an unfortunate idealist
● Due to shortage of money in the treasury and to meet the expenses of Imperialist policy, Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq issued token currency.
● Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq planned invasion of Khurasan and Iraq but did not carry it out.
● Diwan-i-Kohi was the name of agriculture department organized by Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.
● Elphinston was the first historian who believed that there was some signs of madness in Mohammad Tughlaq.
● Feroz Shah abolished 24 taxes disliked by people.
● Feroz Shah Tughlaq following dictum of Quran. levied only 4 taxes named Kharaj, Khums, Zazia and Zakat.
● Feroz Shah brought the two Asokan pillars from Khijrabad and Meerut to Delhi.
● During the period of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, the two books Fatwa-i-Jahandari and Tarikh-i-Feroz Shahi were written by Barni.
● Feroz Shah Tughlaq wrote his autobiography entitled Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi.
● Feroz Shah Tughlaq established a new department of charity at Delhi known as Diwan-i-Khairat.
● Feroz Shah’s book ‘Dalayat-i-Feroz Shahi’ was a work translated into Persian.
● Taimur invaded India in 1398.
● Sikandar Lodhi was the greatest of the Lodhi kings.
● In the Sultanate period, the Wazir was the Prime Minister of the Sultan.
● The department of the Wazir was known as the Diwan-i-Wizarat.
● In the Sultanate period, the Mushrif-i-Mumaliq maintained the account of the income and expenditure of the provinces.
● In the Sultanate period, the Chief Auditor of Accounts was called Mustafa-i-Mamaliq. His main work was to inspect the accounts prepared by Mushraf-i-Mamaliq.
● The Chief of military department was called, Ariz-i-Mamaliq who was not the Commander-in-Chief of the army.
● Dabir-i-Khas was the chairman of the correspondence department.
● Department of Diwan-i-Insha worked under Dabir-i-Khas who issued the royal Firmans (orders).
● The Treasurer was called Khajij and the Chief Justice was called Qazi-i-Mamaliq.
● The Chief of the Construction department was called Mir-i-Imarat.
● The Public Hall of the Sultan was called Durbar-i-Azam.
● The Sultan divided the empire into Iqtas orprovinces.
● Iqta was divided into samll shiks or districts.
● Jakat was the tax which covered the taxes of ‘Sadpa’ and ‘Tith’.
● Qutubuddin Aibak had built the mosque known as Quwwattul-Islam near the Delhi Fort of Rai Pithora.
● The famous mosque at Ajmer known as Dhai Din Ka Jhopra was constructed by Qutubuddin Aibak.
● Dhai Din Ka Jhopra was earlier a Sanskrit school which was built by Vigrahraj Bisaldeo.
● Alai Darwaza which is considered to be the most precious jewel of Islamic architecture was built by Alauddin Khalji.
● The new city of Siri and the Hazaar Situn palace in this city were built by Alauddin Khalji.
● In the period of Sikander Lodhi, his Wazir built the Moth mosque.
● The mosque of Attala is one of the best buildings of Sharqi style.
● The Jhajhanri mosque at Jaunpur was built by Ibrahim Sharqi in about 1430.
● The most important mosque at Jaunpur known as Jami mosque was built by Hussain Shah Sharqi.
● The mosque of Lal Darwaza at Jaunpur, was built in the middle of the 15th century.
● The Vijay Nagar kingdom was divided into 6 provinces. The chief of the province was known as Prantpati or Nayak.
● The province was divided into Nadu or districts.
● The provincial rulers were allowed to issue their coins.
● In the Vijay Nagar empire Brahmans were the most respected. The criminal Brahman was exempled from capital punishment.
● Women enjoyed honourable status. Many of them learnt the art of warfare. They were appointed as bodyguards.
● Krishnadeo Ray is designated as the Andhra Pitamah.
● Gold coins were used and they were called ‘Barah’.
● Mixed metal coins were called Partab.
● Kabir who adopted the Gyanashrayi branch of the Nirgun sect, was the disciple of Ramanand.
● Namdeo was born in a small village of Satara district in 1220.
● Sabad refer to the composition related to Yog Sadhana.
● Guru Nanak was born in a small village Talwandi near Lahor.
● To reform a society ridden with ritualism and superstitious, he preached the Nirguna sect.
● The fifth Sikh Guru Arjundeo systematized the composition of Guru Nanak in ‘Guru Granth Sahib’.
● Malik Mohammad Jayasi earned great name and fame for his work Padmavat.
● The first invasion of Babar on India was conducted in 1519. During this invasion, he conquered Bajaur and Bhera. He went back from here. When he left these two places were lost to the Moghuls.
● Babar again invaded India in 1526, for the fifth time and he did not go back this time. He founded the Moghul empire in India.
● He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi by adopting his trusted war tactics of Tulughma.
● Babar used Artillery for the first time in the battle of Panipat.
● Babar defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in the battle of Khanva in 1527. He scored a victory over Afghans in battle of ‘Ghaghara’ in 1529.
● Babar declared the Chanderi war as Jehad and he constructed a minarate of the heads of the dead Rajputs.
● Babar wrote his autobiography Tujuk-i-Babri in Turkish language.
● Mirza Haider Speaks about numerous qualities of Babar in his book—Tarikh-i-Rashidi.
● Babar’s daughter Gulbadan Begum enumerated the qualities of Babar in her book, Humayun Nama.
● Babar in his reign abolished the tax Tamagha.
● Babar wrote Risala-i-Validiya in Turkish poetry which was orginally the work of Khwaja Obei-dullah.
● Babar learnt the use of artillery from Ustad Ali and Mustafa—his two Turkish officers.
● The name of Humayun’s mother was Maham Sultana.
● In 1544 Humayun took shelter with Shah Tahmasp, the ruler of Iran.
● In July 1555, Humayun again occupied the throne of Delhi.
● Humayun died on 27 January, 1556 as a result of a sudden fall from the stairs of the Din-Panah Library.
● Shershah was a great conqueror. He fought and won a grim battle against Maldeo of Marwar.
● Shershah introduced currency reform, extanded transport system by building, roads, most famous being present day G. T. Road and reformed revenue system by classifying agricultural land and introducing measurement of land.
● During the administration of Shershah, the Diwan-i-Vizarat looked after the tax system and economy and maintained the accounts of the income and expenditure of the State.
● The duty of Diwan-i-Ariz was to recruit the army, supply the food and look after education.
● The duty of Diwan-i-Rasalat was to conduct correspondence with other States and to maintain contact with them.
● The duty of the Diwan-i-Insha was to write emperor’s orders and records of accounts.
● The credit to solve the early difficulties of Akbar and to safeguard the Mughal empire goes to Bairam Khan.
● From 1556 to 1560 the reins of Mughal administration remained in the hands to Bairam Khan.
● At Tilwara, a war was fought between Bairam Khan and the army of Akbar. Bairam Khan was defeated.
● In early days of his rule Akbar was under the influence of Harem particularly his foster another Maham Anga. This is why some historian call the early years of Akbar as ‘Purda-rule’ or Petticoat government.
● When Maham Anga died, the so-called short Petticoat government of Akbar’s time ended.
● In 1562 Akbar abolished the slavery system.
● Akbar was the first muslim ruler who got maximum success in Rajasthan.
● Akbar’s second attack on Gujarat is considered to be not only the fastest invasion of Akbar’s time but the fastest in the history of the world of that age.
● In 1595 during Akbar’s time. Muzaffar Hussain was the Persian Governor of Qandahar.
● Akbar’s mother Hamida Bano Begum was a religious lady of a Sufi Shia family.
● Raja Birbal died fighting on the royal side in the Afghan-Baluchi rebellion during Akbar’s time.
● In 1571 was built an Ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri where every Thrusday, religious deliberation were held.
● Akbar was also impressed by Jainism. He invited the eminent Jain scholar Heer Vijay Suri from Tam Gachh in Gujarat to know about this religion.
● Impressed by Zorastrianism, the holy fire was kept burning in Akbar’s palace.
● Following the tradition of Hindu kings, Akbar started appearing for Darshan of his people from the Jharokha of his palace.
● In Akbar’s time, the Prime Minister was known Wazir or Vakil-i-Mutlaq.
● In Akbar’s time, the Finance Minister was called Wazir or Deewan.
● Mujaffar Khan was the first to be appointed as Wazir during Akbar’s time.
● The assistants of Deewan, known as Sahib-i-Taujeeh looked after the accounts of the Army.
● Another assistant of Deewan, Deewan-i-Bayutoot, looked after the Industries of different kinds.
● The officer who managed the royal treasury was known as Mushrif-i-Khazana.
● Meer Saman in Akbar’s time, managed the affairs of the royal palace, Haram and kitchen.
● In Akbar’s time, Amal Guzar was the officer who collected the revenue from the districts.
● Bitikchi prepared the data about the quality of land and its produce. On the same basis, the Amal Guzar fixed the revenue. Bitikchi was the second important officer in the Revenue department.
● Amil collected the revenue from the Pargana.
● In Akbar’s time, the clerk was called Karkun. His main task was to record the cultivable land in the Pargana and keep an account of the realized and unrealized revenue.
● Akabar introduced Mansabdari system with its ranks of Jat and Sawar based on decimal system.
● According to Blochman, Zat was the definite number of soldiers, the Mansabdars had to keep with them.
● According to Blochman the Sawar meant the definite number of cavalry.
● In Akbar’s time, there were four kinds of land—Polaj, Chacher, Parauti and Banjar.
● In Akbar’s time, Ibrahim Sarhindi translated the Sanskrit text of Atharva Ved in Persian.
● Mulla Shah Mohammad translated in Persian Raj Tarangini of Kalhan.
● Maulana Sherry translated Hari Vansh Puran in Persian.
● Abul Fazal translated Panch Tantra in Persian.
● Faizi translated the story of Nal Damayanti in Persian.
● The history of Islam was compiled in Tarikh-i-Alfi. It is a famous book.
● Akbar established a separate department of Painting, the chairman of this department was the famous painter Khwaja Abdus Samad.
● Abdussamad was an inhabitant of Persia who came to India from Shiraz. He was adorned with the title of Shirin Qalam for his attainments.
● Mohammad Hussain, the famous author of Akbar’s Court was adorned with the title of Zari Qalam.
● Akbar built the Fort of Allahabad.
● The first building of Akbar’s time was Humayun’s tomb at Delhi built under the guidance of his step mother Haji Begum.
● The main mason who built Humayun’s tomb belonged to Iran and his name was Mirza Meerak Ghyas.
● Akbar was born on Sunday. Hence Jahangir declared Sunday as a pious day.
● Nur Jahan was an educated lady. She was specially interested in music, painting and poetry. She composed poetry in Persian.
● The first Englishman to come to the Mughal Court was captain Hawkins.
● Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khana was the guardian and tutor of Jahangir.
● The English ambassador Sir Thomas Roe came to India during Jahangir’s time.
● The Jahangir’s autobiography is Tujuk-i-Jahangiri.
● Shahjahan was born on 5 January, 1592 at Lahore. The name of his mother was Jagat Gosain.
● Two big rebellions broke out during Shahjahan’s time. One was the revolt of the ruler of Bundelkhand named Jujhar Singh and the other was the revolt in south under the leadership of Khan-i-Jahan Lodhi.
● The title of Malika-i-Zamani was conferred upon Arjumand Bano Begum.
● The first coronation of Aurangzeb was performed on 31 July, 1658 and the second coronation took place on 15 June, 1659.
● Aurangzeb passed an order and prohibited the repairs of the temples by the Hindus.
● Aurangzeb appointed Subedars and Muhatsibs to check the spread of education and Hinduism.
● Aurangzeb again levied Zazia upon Hindus.
● Under Aurangzeb, the Hindu traders paid 5% tax on goods while the Muslim traders were free from this tax.
● Aurangzeb issued orders to prohibit the celebration of Holi, Diwali and Basant etc. in the Mughal Court.
● Gokul and Raja Ram were the leaders of Jat revolt against Aurangzeb. After the death of Rajaram, his brother’s son named Churaman continued the revolt. The Jat rebellion went on till the death of Aurangzeb
and the Jats succeeded in establishing a free Jat state of Bharatpur near Mathura.
● In 1681, Akbar, the son of Aurangzeb revolted against him.
● The 9th Guru of the Sikh order, Guru Tegh Bahadur openly protested against the religious policy of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb called him to Delhi and asked him to accept Islam. When he refused, he was beheaded.
● Shivaji was the founder of Maratha State. He fought against the state of Deccan, as well as the mughal empire. He was a great administrator.
● Shivaji was succeeded by Sambhaji who was captured and put to death by Aurangzeb.
● Rajaram ruled only as the representative of Shahu—the son of Shambhaji who was imprisoned by Aurangzeb. Rajaram never occupied the Maratha throne.
● After the death of Raja Ram Maratha war of independence was carried on by his wife Tarabai.
● VascodeGama came to India as the representative of the ruler of Portugal. He met Zamorin of Calicut and obtained trade facilities.
● In 1492 Pope Alexander VI granted the Portuguese the monopoly to trade with the east.
● From 1505 to 1509, Almeda remained in India as the first Portuguese Governor.
● Albukirk was the successor of Almeda in India. His objective was to establish a Portuguese colony in India by intermarrying with Indians.
● After coming to India, the Dutch established their trade centres at Surat, Bharaunch, Cambay, Ahmedabad, Chinsura, Kasim Bazar, Patna, Balasore, Nagapattanam, Kochin, Masulipattanam and Agra.
● The main aim of the Dutch was to trade with the Islands of south-east Asia. India was just a passage for them. This is why the Dutch faced no rivalry with other European companies.
● In 1608, under the leadership of Captain Hawkins, the English fleet reached India.
● In 1717 the Mughal King Farrukh Siyar granted a Firman to the British giving them the trade rights.
● In 1692, the Nawab of Bengal issued an order to the French Company and they established a commercial Factory at Chandranagar.

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